Molecular epidemiology of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) population in northeastern Iran
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A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a “cluster” and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels.
KeywordsCamel CCHF Iran Khorasan RT-PCR
The project was funded by Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory, National Reference Lab, Pasteur Institute Tehran-Iran and Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, bearing registration code 3/230667. Thanks to staff members of veterinary department of the North Khorasan province, particularly Dr Razavi, Dr Ramezani, Dr Ahmadi, Dr Hassan Safaei and Dr Shahin Ahmadi for their collaboration in sampling. The authors really appreciate Dr Hussein Janati, Nariman Shah-Hosseini, Sahar Khakifirouz, and Tahmineh Jalali for sincerely technical support.
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