Skip to main content
Log in

Human dirofilariasis: an emerging zoonosis in India

  • Short Communication
  • Published:
Journal of Parasitic Diseases Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Human dirofilariasis is an uncommon zoonotic infection having a widespread geographical distribution. World over 800 cases of Dirofilaria are on record with highest numbers from Italy, Sri Lanka and republics of the ex-Soviet Union. Dirofilaria repens belongs to the subgenus Nochtiella and is the most common species identified in India. Topographically, the orbital/periorbital regions are the most common regions involved by Dirofilaria. We present a brief review of cases from India including two received in our own institute. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease including its geographical distribution and the probable causation of the recent increase in its incidence in Indian subcontinent.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Athari A (2003) Zoonotic subcutaneous dirofilariases in Iran. Arch Iran Med 6:63–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Badhe BP, Sane SY (1989) Human pulmonary dirofilariasis in India: a case report. J Trop Med Hyg 92:425–426

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bhat KG, Wilson G, Mallya S (2003) Human dirofilariasis. Indian J Med Microbiol 21:65

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bhat S, Sofia O, Raman M, Biswas J (2012) A case of subconjunctival dirofilariasis in South India. J Ophthal Inflamm Infect 2:205–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chakrabarti A, John SR, Chakrabarti M (2009) Worm wobble: subconjunctival Dirofilaria. Kerala J Ophthalmol XXI:202–204

    Google Scholar 

  • Chopra R, Bhatti SM, Mohan S, Taneja N (2012) Dirofilaria in the anterior chamber: a rare occurrence middle east. Afr J Ophthalmol 19:349–351

    Google Scholar 

  • Dhar M, Nambiar R (2008) Dirofilaria masquerading as a cyst in the muscle. Kerala J Ophthalmol XX:88–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Gautam V, Rustagi IM, Singh S, Arora DR (2002) Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens. Jpn J Infect Dis 55:47–48

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ittyerah TP, Mallik D (2004) A case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis of the eyelid in the South Indian state of Kerala. Indian J Ophthalmol 52:235

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Joseph A, Thomas PG, Subramaniam KS (1976) Conjunctivitis by Dirofilaria conjunctivae. Indian J Ophthal 24:20–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Joseph E, Matthai AA, Latha K, Thomas SA (2011a) Subcutaneous human dirofilariasis. J Parasit Dis 35:140–143

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Joseph K, Vinayakumar AR, Criton S, Vishnu MS, Pariyaram SE (2011b) Periorbital mass with cellulitis caused by Dirofilaria. Indian J Med Microbiol 29:431–433

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Khurana S, Singh G, Bhatti HS, Malla N (2010) Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis in India: a report of three cases with brief review of literature. Ind J Med Microbiol 28:394–396

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim MK, Kim CH, Yeom BW, Park SH, Choi SY, Choi JS (2002) The first human case of hepatic dirofilariasis. J Korean Med Sci 17:686–690

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kotian VB, Amin H, Teerthanath, Devika P (2011) Periorbital subcutaneous dirofilariasis a report from coastal Karnataka. Int J Biomed Adv Res 02:398–401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kotigadde S, Ramesh SA, Medappa KT (2012) Human dirofilariasis due to dirofilariasis in Southern India. Trop Parasitol 2:67–68

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mahesh G, Giridhar A, Biswas J, Saikumar SJ, Saikumar SJ, Bhat A (2005) A case of Dirofilariasis, masquerading as lid tumor. Indian J Ophtahlmol 53:63–64

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mrad K, Romani-Ramah S, Driss M, Bougrine F, Hechiche M, Maalej M (1999) Mammary Dirofilariasis: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol 7:175–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee B, Biswas J, Varde MA, Noronha V (2012) Orbital dirofilariasis. Ann Trop Med Public Health 5:42–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nadgir S, Tallur SS, Mangoli V, Halesh LH, Krishna BV (2001) Subconjunctival dirofilariasis in India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32:244–246

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nath R, Gogoi R, Bordoloi n, Gogoi T (2010) Ocular dirofilariasis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 53:157–159

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Orihel TC, Eberhard ML (1998) Zoonotic Filariasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 11(2):366–381

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Padmaja P, Kanagalakshmi SamuelR, Kuruvilla PJ, Mathai E (2005) Subcutaneous dirofilariasis in southern India: a case report. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:437–440

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pampiglione S, Rivasi F (2000) Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: an update of world literature from 1995 to 2000. Parassitologia 42:231–254

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pampiglione S, Canestri Trotti G, Squadrini F (1982) Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis: a report of 5 new cases of Dirofilaria repens in central and northern Italy and of a sixth case with uncertain parasitological diagnosis. Parassitologia 24:167–176

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pampiglione S, Canestri Trotti G, Rivasi F (1995) Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: a review of world literature. Parassitologia 37:149–193

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Permi HS, Veena S, Kishan Prasad HL, Kumar YS, Mohan R, Shetty KJ (2011) Subcutaneous human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens: report of two cases. J Glob Infect Dis 3:199–201

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raju KV, Anju A, Anju A, Vijayalakshmi (2008) Subcutaneous Dirofilaria repens: a report of two cases. Kerala J Ophthalmol XX:294–296

    Google Scholar 

  • Rani PAMA, Irwin PJ, Gatne M, Coleman GT, Traub RJ (2010) Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps. Parasites & Vectors 3:28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sabu L, Devada K, Subramanian H (2005) Dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in Kerala. Indian J Med Res 121:691–693

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sahdev SI, Sureka SP, Sathe PA, Agashe R (2012) Ocular dirofilariasis: still in the dark in western India? J Postgrad Med 58:227–228

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sangit VA, Haldipurkar SS (2012) Subconjunctival dirofilariasis mimicking scleritis: first report from Western India. Indian J Ophthalmol 60:76–77

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sanjeev H, Rajini M, Prasad SR (2011) Human dirofilariasis: an uncommon case of subcutaneous infection with Dirofilaria repens with a brief review of literature. Nitte Univ J Health Sci I:60–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Sathyan P, Manikandan P, Bhaskar M, Padma S, Singh G, Appalaraju B (2006) Subtenons infection by Dirofilaria repens. Indian J Med Microbiol 24:61–62

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sekhar HS, Srinivasa H, Batru BR, Mathai E, Shariff S, Macaden RS (2000) Human ocular dirofilariasis in Kerala, Southern India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 43:77–79

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Senthivel K, Pillai KM (1999) A case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in a woman in Kerala. Indian Vet J 76:263–264

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh R, Shwetha JV, Samantaray JC, Bando G (2010) Dirofilariasis: a rare case report. Indian J Med Microbiol 28:75–77

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smitha M, Rajendran VR, Devarajan E, Anitha PM (2008) Case report: orbital dirofilariasis. Indian J Radiol Imaging 18:60–62

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Srinivasamurthy V, Rao MS, Thejaswini MU, Yoganand (2012) Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis. Ann Trop Med Public Health 5:349–351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teerthanath S, Hariprasad S (2011) A case of Dirofilaria immitus presenting as an intramuscular soft tissue mass. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 54:428–429

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vaidya KA, Srikar SV (2012) Subcutaneous dirofilariasis: a case report. Case Study and Case Report 2:10–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Internet reference. WHO status on malaria in India.URL http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/country-profiles/profile_ind_en.pdf. Accessed 6 Dec 2012

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Reshma G. Kini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kini, R.G., Leena, J.B., Shetty, P. et al. Human dirofilariasis: an emerging zoonosis in India. J Parasit Dis 39, 349–354 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0348-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0348-8

Keywords

Navigation