Skip to main content

Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs from Ludhiana district of Punjab, India

Abstract

Dot-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Immunocomb® assay was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies against Ehrlichia canis in blood samples of 60 privately owned dogs suspected to be infected with E. canis from the Small Animal Clinics, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Antibodies reactive to E. canis were detected in plasma in 48 samples out of 60 samples by Immunocomb® Dot-ELISA. Out of these 39.58% samples were low positive (Titre 1:20–1:40), 31.25% were medium positive (Titre 1:80–1:640) and 29.16% were high positive (Titre >1,280), for the infection. When examined by microscopy, only two samples revealed typical E. canis morulae. Haemato-cellular examination revealed thrombocytopenia along with anaemia and leucopenia. Results suggest that E. canis infection circulates in dogs in India in low non-detectable numbers by microscopy and is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Baneth G, Waner T, Koplah A, Weinstein S, Keysary A (1996) Survey of Ehrlichia canis antibodies among dogs in Israel. Vet Rec 138:275–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Batmaz H, Nevo E, Waner T, Senturk S, Yilmaz Z, Harri S (2001) Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis antibodies among dogs in Turkey. Vet Rec 148:665–666

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Botros BAM, Elmolla MS, Salib AW, Calamaio CA, Dash GA, Arthur RR (1995) Canine ehrlichiosis in Egypt; seroepidemiologic survey. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 62:41–43

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Codner EC, Farris-Smith LL (1886) Characterization of the subclinical phase of ehrlichiosis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:47–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Davoust B (1994) Epidemiology of dog ehrlichiosis, leishmaniasis and dirofilariasis: actual situation in population of the French army. Rev Med Vet 145:249–256

    Google Scholar 

  • Donatien A, Lestoquard A (1935) Existence en Algerie d’une rikettsia du chien. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 28:418–419

    Google Scholar 

  • Gothe R (1998) Ehrlichia canis infektionen bei hundus in Deutschland Epidemiologie, diagnose, therapie and prophylaxe. Tierarztlische Praxis (Klientiere Heimtier) 26:396–410

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harrus S, Waner T, Aizenberg J, Foley J, Poland A, Bark H (1998) Amplification of ehrlichial DNA from dogs 34 months after infection with Ehrlicia canis. J Clin Microbiol 36:73–76

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jain NC (1986) Schalm’s veterinary hematology. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 41–43, 71–72, 993–996

  • Juyal PD, Sandhu BS, Kalra IS, Sood N (1992) Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon cains in naturally infected dogs in Punjab. J Vet Parasitol 6:21–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Juyal PD, Kalra IS, Singla LD (1994) Prevalence of haemoprotozoans in domestic animals in Punjab. In:Proceedings of the 6th national congress of veterinary parasitology, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, 22–24 Oct 1994

  • Keefe TJ, Holland CJ, Salyer PE, Ristic M (1982) Distribution of Ehrlichia canis among military working dogs in the world and selected civilian dogs in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 181:236–238

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lakkawar AW, Nair MG, Varshney KC, Sreekrishnan R, Rao VN (2003) Pathology of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in a German Shepherd dog. Slovenian Vet Res 40:123–132

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakshmanan B, John L, Gomathinayagam S, Raj GD (2006) Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in Chennai. Indian Vet J 83:353–354

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakshmanan B, John L, Gomathinayagam S, Dhinakarraj G (2007) Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis from blood of naturally infected dogs in India. Vet Arch 77:307–312

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Matthewman LA, Kelly PJ, Mahan SM, Semu D, Tagwir M, Bobade P, Brouqui P, Mason PR, Raoult D (1993) Western blot and indirect fluorescent antibody testing for antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis sera from apparently healthy dogs in Zimbabwe. J S Afr Vet Assoc 64:111–115

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McBride J, Corstvet R, Breitschwerdt E, Walker D (2001) Immunodiagnosis of Ehrlichia canis infection with recombinant proteins. J Clin Microbiol 39:315–322

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mylonakis M, Koutinas A, Bilinis C (2003) Evaluation of cytology in the diagnosis of acute canine monocytic (Ehrlichia canis): a comparison between five methods. Vet Microbiol 91:197–204

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Niwetpathomwat A, Techangamsuwan S, Suvarnvibhaja S, Assrasakorn S (2006) A retrospective study of the clinical hematology and biochemistry of canine babesiosis on hospital population in Bangkok, Thailand. Comp Clin Pathol 14:217–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pretorius AM, Kelly PJ (1998) Serological survey for antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis in digs from the Bloemfontein area, South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 69:126–128

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Samaradni D, Maske DK, Kolte SW, Shinde PN (2003) Ehrlichiosis in dogs in Nagpur. J Vet Parasitol 17:165–166

    Google Scholar 

  • Suto Y, Suto A, Inokuma H, Obayashi H, Hayashi T (2001) First confirmed canine case of Ehrlichia canis infection in Japan. Vet Rec 148:809–811

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Troy GC, Forrester SD (1990) Canine ehrlichiosis. In: Green CE (ed) Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. W.B. Sanders Co., Philadelphia, pp 404–418

    Google Scholar 

  • Waner T, Rosner M, Harrus S, Naveh A, Zass R, Keysar A (1996) Detection of ehrlichial antigen in plasma of beagle dogs with experimental acute Ehrlichia canis infection. Vet Parasitol 63:331–335

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waner T, Strenger C, Keysary A (2000) Comparison of a clinic-based ELISA test kit with the immunofluorescence test for the assay of Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 12:240–244

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Waner T, Harrus S, Jongejan F, Bark H, Keysary A, Cornelissen AW (2001) Significance of serological testing for ehrlichial diseases in dogs with special emphasis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. Vet Parasitol 95:1–15

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wen B, Rikihista Y, Mott JM, Grene R, Kim HY, Zhi N, Couto C, Unver A, Bartsch R (1997) Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline. J Clin Microbiol 35:1852–1855

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to The Director of Research, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University for providing finances for conduction of work. Special thanks are due to Dr. Mohamed S. M. Eljadar, M.V.Sc. student of Veterinary Parasitology Department for clicking the photographs.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. D. Singla.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Singla, L.D., Singh, H., Kaur, P. et al. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs from Ludhiana district of Punjab, India. J Parasit Dis 35, 195–198 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-011-0055-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-011-0055-2

Keywords

  • Dogs
  • Dot-ELISA
  • Ehrlichia canis
  • Immunocomb
  • Pancytopenia