Advertisement

Silicon

pp 1–6 | Cite as

Effect of Urea on the Morphology of Fe 3 O 4 Magnetic Nanoparticles and Their Application in Potentiometric Urea Biosensors

  • M. AtifEmail author
  • A. Ali
  • M. S. AlSalhi
  • M. Willander
Original Paper
  • 56 Downloads

Abstract

The effect of different concentrations of urea on the morphology of iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles was studied. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were fabricated by the coprecipitation method. The morphology, crystallinity, compositional purity, and emission characteristics were tested by the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman characterization. The drop-casting technique was successfully used to fabricate a potentiometric urea biosensor producing initially isopropanol and chitosan solution, consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, on a glass fiber filter. To measure the developed biosensor’s voltage signal from the functionalized nanoparticles, a copper wire was utilized. The Fe3O4 nanoparticle surface functionalization was performed through the electrostatic immobilization of urease with the Fe3O4-chitosan (CH) nanobiocomposite. The presented urea biosensor measured a wide logarithmic range of urea concentration of 0.1–80 mM with a sensitivity of 42 mV/decade, and indicated a fast response time of approximately 12 s. The developed urea biosensor showed enhanced sensitivity, stability, reusability, and specificity. All experimental results demonstrate the application potential of the developed urea sensor for the monitoring of urea concentrations in human serum, drugs, and food industry-related samples.

Keywords

Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles XRD Raman characterization Potentiometric urea biosensor 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University for funding through Vice Deanship of Scientific Research Chairs.

References

  1. 1.
    Melo JVD, Cosnier S, Mousty C, Martelet C (2002) The nanocomposite enhanced biosensing response characteristics as compared to that of the bare ZnO based (urs/zno/ITO) bioelectrode Renault. Anal Chem 74:4037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rajesh V, Bisht W, Takashima K (2005) An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically prepared copolymer poly (N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film. Biomater 26:3683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Singhal RL, Gambhir A, Pandey MK, Annapoorni S, Malhotra BD (2002) Immobilization of urease on poly (n-vinyl carbazole)/ stearic acid Langmuir–Blodgett films for application to urea biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron 17:697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhao G, Xu JJ, Chen HY (2006) Fabrication, characterization of Fe3O4 multilayer film and its application in promoting direct electron transfer of haemoglobin. Electrochem Commun 8:148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maaref A, Barhoumi HM, Rammah B, Martelet C, Jaffrezic RN, Mousty C, Cosnier S (2007) Impedance type relative humidity detector is fabricated by depositing electrospun silica nanofibers on glass substrate. Sens Actuators B Chem 123:671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Al-Ghamdi A, Gupta RK, El-Tantawy F, Yakuphanoglu F (2017) A quartz crystal microbalance biosensor based use of pesticide as recognition bed for detection of HAS 1:67–71Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaushik A, Solanki PR, Ansari AA, Ahmad S, Malhotra BD (2008) Chitosan-iron oxide nanobiocomposite based immunosensor for ochratoxin-A. Electrochem Commun 10:1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cao D, Hu N (2006) Direct electron transfer between hemoglobin and pyrolytic graphite electrodes enhanced by Fe3O4 nanoparticles in their layer-by-layer self-assembly films. Biophys Chem 121:209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kouassi GK, Irudayaraj J, McCarty GJ (2005) Examination of cholesterol oxidase attachment to magnetic nanoparticles. J Nanobiotechnol 31:110Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vereda F, Vicente DJ, Hidalgo AR (2007) Influence of a magnetic field in the formation of magnetite particles via two precipitation methods. Langmuir 23:3581CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ali A, AlSalhi MS, Atif M, Ansari AA, Israr MQ, Sadaf JR, Ahmad E, Nur O, Willander M (2013) Potentiometric urea biosensor utilizing nanobiocomposite of chitosan-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. J Phys Conf Series 414:012024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ali A, Israr MQ, Wazir Z, Tufail M, Ibupoto ZH, Jamil-Rana S, Atif M, Khan SA, Willander M (2015) Cobalt oxide magnetic nanoparticles–chitosan composite based electrochemical urea biosensor. Ind J Phys 89:331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ibupoto ZH, Tahira A, Mallah AB, Shahzad SA, Willander M, Wang B, Yu C (2017) The synthesis of functional cobalt oxide nanostructures, and their sensitive glucose sensing application. Electroanalysis 29:213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tahira A, Baloach Q, Chacha GS, Sirajuddin WM, Ibupoto ZH (2016) Fe-doped cobalt oxide nanostructures for the development of sensitive dopamine biosensor. Sen Lett 14:764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gu J, Li S, Wang E, Sun G, Xu R, Zhang H (2009) Single-crystalline α-Fe2O3 with hierarchical structures: Controllable synthesis, formation mechanism and photocatalytic properties. J Solid State Chem 182:1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sugimoto T, Khan MM, Muramatsu A (1993) Preparation of monodisperse peanut-type α-Fe2O3 particles from condensed ferric hydroxide gel. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 70:167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Konishi Y, Kawamura T, Asai S (1994) Preparation and properties of fine hematite powders by hydrolysis of iron carboxylate solutions. Metall Mater Trans B 25:165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hsu LC, Li YY, Lo CG, Huang CW, Chern G (2008) Thermal growth and magnetic characterization of α-Fe2O3 nanowires. J Phys D Appl Phys 41:185003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1981) Aquatic chemistry: an introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural water. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics and Astronomy Department, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Research Chair for Laser Diagnosis of CancerKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Department of Science and Technology, Campus NorrköpingLinköping UniversityNorrköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations