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Diatom Frustules Nanostructure in Pelagic and Benthic Environments

  • A. Leynaert
  • C. Fardel
  • B. Beker
  • C. Soler
  • G. Delebecq
  • A. Lemercier
  • P. Pondaven
  • P. E. Durand
  • K. Heggarty
Original Paper
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Diatoms are an important group of eukaryotic microalgae with a siliceous cell wall, the frustule. Diatoms are traditionally subdivided into two sub-classes, namely centric diatoms with a radial symmetry and pennate diatoms with a bilateral symmetry. These two groups of diatoms have usually biotope “preferences”, with centric diatoms dominating the pelagic environments, whereas the benthic habitats are mostly inhabited by pennate diatoms. The question of how the morphology of diatoms (centric versus pennate) or the ultrastructure of the frustule could be driven by ecological constrains remains unclear. For example, some studies have suggested that the structure of the diatom frustule could play a role in the light harvesting performances. In this work, we studied the variations of the diatom frustules nanostructure in several benthic and pelagic species inhabiting the same coastal ecosystem, particularly the ultrastructure that includes the distribution and size of the frustule pores. Although the species studied here experience different ecological constrains in term of light, we found no significant differences between benthic and pelagic species, in either the size of the pores (average = 285 (± 108) nm) or the distance between them (average = 234 (± 87) nm). Moreover, the intra-species variability was sometimes larger than the variability observed between cells from different genera. We concluded that the pore morphometry is controlled by a combination of genetically-driven processes of bio-mineralization, and episodic variations in environmental growth conditions which influence the chemical precipitation of silica within the cells.

Keywords

Bacillariophyta Benthic and pelagic diatoms Microphytobenthos Frustule structure Silicification Biomineralization Light 

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Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank N. Gayet and A. Jolivet for their help in SEM and image analysis, the crew of the RV “Albert Lucas” and the divers from IUEM/LEMAR for their assistance in sampling. This work was supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR Blanc - CHIVAS project) and the University of Western Brittany (UBO-BQR, IPOD project).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR CNRS 6539Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (IUEM)PlouzanéFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Biotechnologie et Chimie Marine (LBCM), EA 3884, Centre de Recherche C. HuygensUniversité de Bretagne SudLorient CedexFrance
  3. 3.Département d’OptiqueTelecom BretagnePlouzanéFrance

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