pp 1–11 | Cite as

Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Behavior of AA7075-Si3N4 Composite

  • Mir Irfan Ul Haq
  • Ankush Anand
Original Paper


The present investigation is aimed at identifying the influence of Si3N4 reinforcement on the mechanical and tribological behavior of AA7075-Si3N4 composite. Five different composites of AA7075 aluminum alloy reinforced by silicon nitride particles have been fabricated by the stir casting route. The percentage of silicon nitride was varied from 0-8 wt%. The cast composites were tested for hardness, density and compression strength. Unidirectional friction and wear testing was carried out for all compositions under five different loading conditions (10 N, 20 N, 30 N, 40 N and 50 N) at a constant sliding speed of 1 m/s. SEM and EDS analysis was also carried out for worn surface analysis and elemental analysis of the composites. The hardness and compression strength of the composites exhibited an increasing trend with an increase in wt% of reinforcement in the base alloy, showing 20% improvement in hardness and around 50% improvement in compression strength for 8 wt% Si3N4 addition. The addition of Si3N4 particles led to an improvement in the wear resistance by 37% at low loads (10 N) and 61% at higher loads (50 N). The COF for all varied compositions at low load (10 N) and high load (50 N) ranges from 0.10 to 0.20 and 0.25 to 0.30 respectively. Moreover, the COF is observed to increase until 4 wt% and beyond it decreases. Microscopic studies of worn surfaces revealed a dominance of delamination wear at lower concentrations (0 wt% and 2 wt%) and ploughing at higher concentrations (6 wt% and 8 wt%). The developed composites exhibited better mechanical and anti-wear properties and could serve as potential candidates in sliding applications such as bearings, brake drums, gears, sprockets and brake rotors.


Metal matrix composite Wear Friction Stir casting 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors would like to acknowledge the help rendered by the staff of Central Workshop SMVDU. Moreover the financial assistance offered by SMVD University for carrying out the testing is also acknowledged. The authors would also like to thank SAI Labs Patiala, Punjab, India for extending their testing facility (SEM and EDS) in carrying out the testing.


  1. 1.
    Mohanty A, Misra M, Drzal L (2002) Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: opportunities and challenges in the green materials world. J Polym Environ 10:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rajan HM, Ramabalan S, Dinaharan I, Vijay S (2014) Effect of TiB 2 content and temperature on sliding wear behavior of AA7075/tib 2 in situ aluminum cast composites. Arch Civ Mech Eng 14:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Poria S, Sahoo P, Sutradhar G (2016) Tribological characterization of stir-cast aluminium-TiB2. Silicon 8:591–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rao R, Das S (2011) Effect of applied pressure on the tribological behaviour of SiCp reinforced AA2024 alloy. Tribol Int 44:454–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh N, Mir IUH, Raina A, Anand A, Kumar V, Sharma SM (2017) Synthesis and tribological investigation of Al-SiC based nano hybrid composite. AEJ(Article in Press).
  6. 6.
    Singh S, Pal K (2015) Effect of surface modified silicon carbide particles with Al 2 O 3 and nanocrystalline spinel ZnAl 2 O 4 on mechanical and damping properties of the composite. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 644:325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veeravalli RR, Nallu R, Mohiuddin SMM (2016) Mechanical and tribological properties of AA7075–tic metal matrix composites under heat treated (T 6) and cast conditions. J Mater Res Technol 5:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sajjadi SA, Ezatpour H, Beygi H (2011) Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Al 2 O 3 micro and nano composites fabricated by stir casting. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 528: 8765–8771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Omrani E, Moghadam AD, Menezes PL, Rohatgi PK (2016) Influences of graphite reinforcement on the tribological properties of self-lubricating aluminum matrix composites for green tribology, sustainability, and energy efficiency—a review. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 83:325–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu D, Atkinson H, Kapranos P, Jirattiticharoean W, Jones H (2003) Microstructural evolution and tensile mechanical properties of thixoformed high performance aluminium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 361:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andreatta F, Terryn H, De Wit J (2004) Corrosion behaviour of different tempers of AA7075 aluminium alloy. Electrochim Acta 49:2851–2862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaufman JG (1999) Properties of aluminum alloys: tensile, creep, and fatigue data at high and low temperatures. ASM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu Y, Mol J, Janssen G (2016) Combined corrosion and wear of aluminium alloy 7075-T6. J Bio-and Tribo-Corros 2:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shanmughasundaram P (2015) Statistical analysis on influence of heat treatment, load and velocity on the dry sliding wear behavior of Aluminium alloy 7075. Mater Phys Mech 22:118–124Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruiz-Andrés M, Conde A, De Damborenea J, García I (2015) Wear behavior of aluminum alloys at slow sliding speeds. Tribol Trans 58:955–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang Z-R, Sun Y, Li X-X, Wang S-Q, Mao T-J (2015) Dry sliding wear performance of 7075 Al alloy under different temperatures and load conditions. Rare Met 1–6.
  17. 17.
    Kumar GV, Rao C, Selvaraj N (2012) Mechanical and dry sliding wear behavior of Al7075 alloy-reinforced with SiC particles. J Compos Mater 46:1201–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lakshmipathy J, Kulendran B (2014) Reciprocating wear behaviour of 7075Al/SiC and 6061Al/Al 2 O 3 composites: a study of effect of reinforcement, stroke and load. Tribol Ind 36:117–126Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Daoud A, El-Khair MA, Abdel-Azim A (2004) Effect of Al2O3 particles on the microstructure and sliding wear of 7075 Al alloy manufactured by squeeze casting method. J Mater Eng Perform 13:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baradeswaran A, Perumal AE (2013) Influence of B 4 C on the tribological and mechanical properties of Al 7075–B 4 C composites. Compos Part B Eng 54:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baskaran S, Anandakrishnan V, Duraiselvam M (2014) Investigations on dry sliding wear behavior of in situ casted AA7075–tic metal matrix composites by using Taguchi technique. Mater Des 60:184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang L, Snidle R, Gu L (2000) Rolling contact silicon nitride bearing technology: a review of recent research. Wear 246:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riley FL (2000) Silicon nitride and related materials. J Am Ceram Soc 83:245–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xiu Z-Y, Chen G-Q, Wu G-H, Yang W-S, Liu Y-M (2011) Effect of volume fraction on microstructure and mechanical properties of Si3N4/Al composites. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 21:285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma N, Khanna R, Singh G, Kumar V (2016) Fabrication of 6061 aluminum alloy reinforced with Si3N4/n-Gr and its wear performance optimization using integrated RSM-GA. Particul Sci Technol 2016:1–11Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Suryanarayana RC, Khan S, Koppad PG, Khan Z (2013) Tribological behaviour of hot extruded Al6061-Si3N4 composite. ASME 2013 international mechanical engineering congress and exposition: american society of mechanical engineers. p V02ATA050-V02AT02AGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arik H (2008) Effect of mechanical alloying process on mechanical properties of a-Si 3 N 4 reinforced aluminum-based composite materials. Mater Des 29:1856–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cambronero L, Sanchez E, Ruiz-Roman J, Ruiz-Prieto J (2003) Mechanical characterisation of AA7015 aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramics. J Mater Process Technol 143: 378–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumar NM, Kumaran SS, Kumaraswamidhas L (2016) Aerospace application on Al 2618 with reinforced–Si 3 N 4, AlN and ZrB 2 in-situ composites. J Alloys Compd 672:238–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hashim J, Looney L, Hashmi M (1999) Metal matrix composites: production by the stir casting method. J Mater Process Technol 92:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sharma P, Sharma S, Khanduja D (2015) Production and some properties of Si 3 N 4 reinforced aluminium alloy composites. J Asian Ceram Soc 3:352–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shen Y-L, Chawla N (2001) On the correlation between hardness and tensile strength in particle reinforced metal matrix composites. Mater Sci Eng A 297:44–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hamid AA, Ghosh P, Jain S, Ray S (2008) The influence of porosity and particles content on dry sliding wear of cast in situ Al (Ti)–Al 2 O 3 (TiO 2) composite. Wear 265:14–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Howell G, Ball A (1995) Dry sliding wear of particulate-reinforced aluminium alloys against automobile friction materials. Wear 181:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Subramanian C (1992) Some considerations towards the design of a wear resistant aluminium alloy. Wear 155:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mabuchi M, Iwasaki H, Higashi K, Langdon T (1995) Processing and superplastic properties of fine grained Si3N4/Al–Mg–Si composites. Mater Sci Technol 11:1295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Suresh S, Moorthi NSV, Vettivel S, Selvakumar N (2014) Mechanical behavior and wear prediction of stir cast Al–TiB 2 composites using response surface methodology. Mater Des 59:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sharifi EM, Karimzadeh F, Enayati M (2011) Fabrication and evaluation of mechanical and tribological properties of boron carbide reinforced aluminum matrix nanocomposites. Mater Des 32:3263–3271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sajjadi SA, Ezatpour H, Parizi MT (2012) Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 aluminum alloy/Al 2 O 3 composites fabricated by stir and compo-casting processes. Mater Des 34:106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rahimian M, Parvin N, Ehsani N (2010) Investigation of particle size and amount of alumina on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al matrix composite made by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A 527:1031–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ramesh C, Khan AA, Ravikumar N, Savanprabhu P (2005) Prediction of wear coefficient of Al6061–TiO 2 composites. Wear 259:602–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Palanivel R, Dinaharan I, Laubscher R, Davim JP (2016) Influence of boron nitride nanoparticles on microstructure and wear behavior of AA6082/tib 2 hybrid aluminum composites synthesized by friction stir processing. Mater Des 106:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Venkat Prasat S, Subramanian R, Radhika N, Anandavel B (2011) Dry sliding wear and friction studies on AlSi10Mg–fly ash–graphite hybrid metal matrix composites using Taguchi method. tribology-materials. Surf Interface 5:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Archard J (1953) Contact and rubbing of flat surfaces. J Appl Phys 24:981–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mazahery A, Shabani MO (2012) A comparative study on abrasive wear behavior of semisolid–liquid processed Al–Si matrix reinforced with coated B4C reinforcement. T Indian I Metals 65:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nuruzzaman DM, Chowdhury MA (2012) Effect of load and sliding velocity on friction coefficient of aluminum sliding against different pin materials. Am J Mater Sci 2:26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Torabinejad V, Aliofkhazraei M, Sabour Rouhaghdam A, Allahyarzadeh M (2017) Tribological behavior of electrodeposited Ni-Fe multilayer coating. Tribol Trans 60:923–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hassan AM, Alrashdan A, Hayajneh MT, Mayyas AT (2009) Wear behavior of Al–Mg–Cu–based composites containing SiC particles. Tribol Int 42:1230–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zmitrowicz A (2005) Wear debris: a review of properties and constitutive models. J Theor Appl Mech 43:3–35Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Venkataraman B, Sundararajan G (2000) Correlation between the characteristics of the mechanically mixed layer and wear behaviour of aluminium, Al-7075 alloy and Al-MMCs. Wear 245:22–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Radhika N, Subramaniam R (2013) Wear behaviour of aluminium/alumina/graphite hybrid metal matrix composites using Taguchi’s techniques. Ind Lubr Tribol 65:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nguyen Q, Sim Y, Gupta M, Lim C (2015) Tribology characteristics of magnesium alloy AZ31b and its composites. Tribol Int 82:464–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Iwai Y, Honda T, Miyajima T, Iwasaki Y, Surappa M, Xu J (2000) Dry sliding wear behavior of Al 2 O 3 fiber reinforced aluminum composites. Compos Sci Technol 60:1781–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lu D, Gu M, Shi Z (1999) Materials transfer and formation of mechanically mixed layer in dry sliding wear of metal matrix composites against steel. Tribol Lett 6:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringShri Mata Vaishno Devi UniversityKatraIndia

Personalised recommendations