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Table 7 Standards for monitoring

From: World Health Organization-World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WHO-WFSA) International Standards for a Safe Practice of AnesthesiaNormes internationales pour une pratique sécuritaire de l’anesthésie de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et de la Fédération mondiale des sociétés d’anesthésiologie (OMS-FMSA)

  HIGHLY RECOMMENDED RECOMMENDED SUGGESTED
Intraoperative Clinical observation by an appropriately trained anesthesia provider:
• Pulse rate and quality
• Tissue oxygenation and perfusion
• Respiratory rate and quality
• Breathing system bag movement
• Breath sounds
• Heart sounds (e.g., use of precordial or esophageal stethoscope as appropriate)
Audible signals and alarms at all times
Continuous use of pulse oximetry
Intermittent non-invasive blood pressure monitoring
Carbon dioxide detector for patients undergoing intubation
Inspired oxygen concentration monitor
Device to prevent delivery of a hypoxic gas mixture
Disconnect alarm (when mechanical ventilator used)
Continuous use of an electrocardiogram
Intermittent temperature monitoring
Peripheral neuromuscular transmission monitor (when muscle relaxants used)
Continuous waveform capnography* for patients undergoing general anesthesia and deep sedation
Continuous measurement of inspired and expired gas volumes
Continuous measurement of inspired and expired inhalational anesthetic concentrations
Continuous measurement and display of arterial blood pressure (in appropriate cases)
Continuous electronic temperature monitoring (in appropriate cases)
Urine output monitoring (in appropriate cases)
Processed EEG in appropriate cases
Postoperative Clinical observation:
• Tissue oxygenation and perfusion
• Respiratory rate and quality
• Pulse rate and quality
Continuous use of pulse oximetry
Intermittent non-invasive blood pressure monitoring
Assessment of pain score using age appropriate scale
Intermittent temperature monitoring Urine output monitoring (in appropriate cases)
  1. *Continuous waveform capnography will be HIGHLY RECOMMENDED when appropriately robust and suitably priced devices are available
  2. EEG = electroencephalography