The recovery of lithium from hard rock minerals has received increased attention given the high demand for this element. Therefore, this study optimized an innovative process, which does not require a high-temperature calcination step, for lithium extraction from lepidolite. Mechanical activation and acid digestion were suggested as crucial process parameters, and experimental design and response-surface methodology were applied to model and optimize the proposed lithium extraction process. The promoting effect of amorphization and the formation of lithium sulfate hydrate on lithium extraction yield were assessed. Several factor combinations led to extraction yields that exceeded 90%, indicating that the proposed process is an effective approach for lithium recovery.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
T.T Hien-Dinh, V.T. Luong, R. Gieré, and T. Tran, Extraction of lithium from lepidolite via iron sulphide roasting and water leaching, Hydrometallurgy, 153(2015), p. 154.
V.T. Luong, D.G. Kang, J.W. An, J.M. Kim, and T. Tran, Factors affecting the extraction of lithium from lepidolite, Hydrometallurgy, 134-135(2013), p 54.
V.T. Luong, D.J. Kang, J.W. An, D.A. Dao, M.J. Kim, and T. Tran, Iron sulphate roasting for extraction of lithium from lepidolite, Hydrometallurgy, 141(2014), p. 8.
Q. Yan, X. Li, Z. Yin, Z. Wang, U. Guo, W. Peng, and Q. Hu, A novel process for extracting lithium from lepidolite, Hydrometallurgy, 121-124(2012), p. 54.
Q. Yan, X. Li, Z. Wang, X. Wu, H. Guo, Q. Hu, W. Peng, and J. Wang, Extraction of valuable metals from lepidolite, Hydrometallurgy, 117-118(2012), p. 116.
Q. Yan, X. Li, Z. Wang, X. Wu, J. Wang, H. Guo, Q. Hu, and W. Peng, Extraction of lithium from lepidolite by sulfation roasting and water leaching, Int. J. Miner. Process., 110-111(2012), p. 1.
Q. Yan, X. Li, Z. Wang, J. Wang, H. Guo, Q. Hu, W. Peng, and X. Wu, Extraction of lithium from lepidolite using chlorination roasting−water leaching process, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 22(2012), p. 1753.
J. Kondás, and J. Jandová, Lithium extraction from zinnwaldite wastes after gravity dressing of Sn-W ores, Acta Metall. Slovaca, 12(2006), p. 197.
J. Jandová, H.N. Vu, T. Belková, P. Dvorák, and J. Kondás, Obtaining Li2CO3 from zinnwaldite wastes, Ceram. Silik., 53(2009), No. 2, p. 108.
H. Vu, J. Bernardi, J. Jandová, L. Vaculíková, and V. Goliáš, Lithium and rubidium extraction from zinnwaldite by alkali digestion process: Sintering mechanism and leaching kinetics, Int. J. Miner. Process., 123(2013), p. 9.
J. Jandová, P. Dvorak, H.N. and Vu, Processing of zinnwaldite waste to obtain Li2CO3, Hydrometallurgy, 103(2010), p. 12.
O. Sitando and P.L. Crouse, Processing of a Zimbabwean petalite to obtain lithium carbonate, Int. J. Miner. Process., 102-103(2012), p. 45.
L.I. Barbosa, G. Valente, R.P. Orosco, and J.A. González, Lithium extraction from β-spodumene through chlorination with chlorine gas, Miner. Eng., 56(2014), p. 29.
E. Siame and R.D. Pascoe, Extraction of lithium from micaceous waste from china clay production, Miner. Eng., 24(2011), p. 1595.
N. Vieceli, C.A. Nogueira, M.F.C. Pereira, F.O. Durão, C. Guimarães, and F. Margarido, Optimization of lithium extraction from lepidolite by roasting using sodium and calcium sulfates, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. Rev., 38(2017), No. 1, p. 62.
N. Vieceli, C.A. Nogueira, M.F.C. Pereira, A.P.S. Dias, F.O. Durão, C. Guimarães, and F. Margarido, Effects of mechanical activation on lithium extraction from a lepidolite ore concentrate, Miner. Eng., 102(2017), p. 1.
TEMA Machinery Ltd., Laboratory Disc Mill [2016-08-01]. http://www.tema.co.uk/products/tema-mill/laboratory-disc-mill.
D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 8th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA, New Jersey, 2012, p. 752.
Met-Chem Canada Inc., Feasibility Study on the Whabouchi Lithium Deposit and Hydromet Plant, NI 43-101 Technical Report, Prepared for Nemaska Lithium Inc, 2014.
T.N.A.S.T. Mustafa, S.R.R. Munusamy, D.N.U. Lan, and N.F.M. Yunos, Physical and structural transformations of Perlis carbonate rocks via mechanical activation route, Procedia Chem., 19(2016), p. 673.
P. Baláž, Mechanochemistry in Nanoscience and Minerals Engineering, 1st Ed., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 2008, p. 413.
The author N. Vieceli acknowledges the doctorate grant ref. 9244/13-1 supplied by CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil. The authors are also very grateful to Felmica Minerais Industriais, S.A. for having kindly provided the lepidolite ore used in the tests.
About this article
Cite this article
Vieceli, N., Nogueira, C.A., Pereira, M.F.C. et al. Optimization of an innovative approach involving mechanical activation and acid digestion for the extraction of lithium from lepidolite. Int J Miner Metall Mater 25, 11–19 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-018-1541-7
- mechanical activation
- acid digestion