Reverse-transformation austenite structure control with micro/nanometer size

  • Hui-bin Wu
  • Gang Niu
  • Feng-juan Wu
  • Di Tang
Open Access


To control the reverse-transformation austenite structure through manipulation of the micro/nanometer grain structure, the influences of cold deformation and annealing parameters on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. The samples were first cold-rolled, and then samples deformed to different extents were annealed at different temperatures. The microstructure evolutions were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD); the mechanical properties are also determined by tensile tests. The results showed that the fraction of stain-induced martensite was approximately 72% in the 90% cold-rolled steel. The micro/nanometric microstructure was obtained after reversion annealing at 820–870°C for 60 s. Nearly 100% reversed austenite was obtained in samples annealed at 850°C, where grains with a diameter ≤ 500 nm accounted for 30% and those with a diameter > 0.5 μm accounted for 70%. The micro/nanometer-grain steel exhibited not only a high strength level (approximately 959 MPa) but also a desirable elongation of approximately 45%.


austenitic stainless steel structure control martensite reverse transformation grain refinement 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51474031).


  1. [1]
    R.D.K. Misra, W.W. Thein-Han, T.C. Pesacreta, M.C. Somani, and L.P. Karjalainen, Biological significance of nanograined/ultrafine-grained structures: Interaction with fibroblasts, Acta Biomater., 6(2010, No. 8, 3339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    R.D.K. Misra, W.W. Thein-Han, S.A. Mali, M.C. Somani, and L.P. Karjalainen, Cellular activity of bioactive nanograined/ultrafine-grained materials, Acta Biomater., 6(2010, No. 7, 2826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Mali, R.D.K. Misra, M.C. Somani, and L.P. Karjalainen, Biomimetic nanostructured coatings on nano-grained/ultrafine-grained substrate: microstructure, surface adhesion strength, and biosolubility, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 29(2009, No. 8, 2417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    P.K.C. Venkatsurya, W.W. Thein-Han, R.D.K. Misra, M.C. Somani, and L.P. Karjalainen, Advancing nanograined/ultrafine- grained structures for metal implant technology: interplay between grooving of nano/ultrafine grains and cellular response, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 30(2010, No. 7, 1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    R.D.K. Misra, B.R. Kumar, M. Somani, and P. Karjalainen, Deformation processes during tensile straining of ultrafine/nanograined structures formed by reversion in metastable austenitic steels, Scripta Mater., 59(2008, No. 1, 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    B. Hwang and C.G. Lee, Influence of thermomechanical processing and heat treatments on tensile and Charpy impact properties of B and Cu bearing high-strength low-alloy steels, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 527(2010, No. 16–17), 4341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    X.W. Kong, L.Y. Lan, Z.Y. Hu, B. Li, and T.Z. Sui, Optimization of mechanical properties of high strength bainitic steel using thermo-mechanical control and accelerated cooling process, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 217(2015, 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    H.X. Yin, A.M. Zhao, Z.Z. Zhao, X. Li, S.J. Li, H.J. Hu, and W.G. Xia, Influence of original microstructure on the transformation behavior and mechanical properties of ultra-high-strength TRIP-aided steel, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 22(2015, No. 3, 262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    T. Sakai, A. Belyakov, R. Kaibyshev, H. Miura, and J.J. Jonas, Dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization under hot, cold and severe plastic deformation conditions, Prog. Mater Sci., 60(2014, 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    I.A. Yakubtsov, P. Poruks, and J.D. Boyd, Microstructure and mechanical properties of bainitic low carbon high strength plate steels, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 480(2008, No. 1–2), 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    X.X. Xu, Y. Yu, W.L. Cui, B.Z. Bai, and J.L. Gu, Ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of high strength steel with carbide-free bainite/martensite complex microstructure, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 16(2009, No. 3, 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Y.Q. Weng, achievements of new generation steels program in china, Mater. Rev., 18(2004, 68.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M.M. Tong, J. Ni, Y.T. Zhang, D.Z. Li, and Y.Y. Li, Temporal oscillatory behavior in deformation induced ferrite transformation in an Fe-C binary system, Scripta Mater., 50(2004, No. 6, 909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    C. Garcia-Mateo, F.G. Caballero, and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Development of hard bainite, ISIJ Int., 43(2003, No. 8, 1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    F. Forouzan, A. Najafizadeh, A. Kermanpur, A. Hedayati, and R. Surkialiabad, Production of nano/submicron grained AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 527(2010, No. 27, 7334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    R. Ueji, N. Tsuji, Y. Minamino, and Y. Koizumi, Ultragrain refinement of plain low carbon steel by cold-rolling and annealing of martensite, Acta Mater., 50(2002, No. 16, 4177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    W. Jiang, D. Ye, J. Li, J. Su, and K.Y. Zhao, Reverse transformation mechanism of martensite to austenite in 00Cr15Ni7Mo2WCu2 super martensitic stainless steel, Steel Res. Int., 85(2014, No. 7, 1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    C. Ghosh, C. Aranas Jr., and J.J. Jonas, Dynamic transformation of deformed austenite at temperatures above the Ae3, Prog. Mater Sci., 82(2016, 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    K. Tomimura, S. Takaki, and Y. Tokunaga, Reversion mechanism from deformation induced martensite to austenite in metastable austenitic stainless steels, ISIJ Int., 31(1991, No. 12, 1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. Belyakov, K. Tsuzaki, H. Miura, and T. Sakai, Effect of initial microstructures on grain refinement in a stainless steel by large strain deformation, Acta Mater., 51(2003, No. 3, 847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. Han and Y.K. Lee, The effects of the heating rate on the reverse transformation mechanism and the phase stability of reverted austenite in medium Mn steels, Acta Mater., 67(2014, 354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui-bin Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gang Niu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Feng-juan Wu
    • 2
  • Di Tang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Collaborative Innovation Center of Steel TechnologyUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Steel for Traffic and EnergyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations