Biodegradable starch/poly (vinyl alcohol)/nano-titanium dioxide (ST/PVA/nano-TiO2) nanocomposite films were prepared via a solution casting method. Their biodegradability, mechanical properties, and thermal properties were also studied in this paper. A general full factorial experimental approach was used to determine effective parameters on the mechanical properties of the prepared films. ST/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of mechanical analysis show that ST/PVA films with higher contents of PVA have much better mechanical properties. In thermal analysis, it is found that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improves the thermal stability of the films. SEM micrographs, taken from the fracture surface of samples, illustrate that the addition of PVA makes the film softer and more flexible. The results of soil burial biodegradation indicate that the biodegradability of ST/PVA/TiO2 films strongly depends on the starch proportion in the film matrix. The degradation rate is increased by the addition of starch in the films.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
H.S. Kim, H.J. Kim, J.W. Lee, and I.G. Choi, Biodegradability of bio-flour filled biodegradable poly (butylene succinate) bio-composites in natural and compost soil, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 91(2006), p. 1117.
X.Z. Tang and S. Alavi, Recent advances in starch, polyvinyl alcohol based polymer blends, nanocomposites and their biodegradability, Carbohydr. Polym., 85(2011), p. 7.
G.H. Zhao, Y. Liu, C.L. Fang, M. Zhang, C.Q. Zhou, and Z.D. Chen, Water resistance, mechanical properties and biodegradability of methylated-cornstarch/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend film, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 91(2006), p. 703.
R. Jayasekara, I. Harding, I. Bowater, G.B.Y. Christie, and G.T. Lonergan, Preparation, surface modification and characterisation of solution cast starch PVA blended films, Polym. Test., 23(2004), p. 17.
M. Zhai, F. Yoshii, and T. Kume, Radiation modification of starch-based plastic sheets, Carbohydr. Polym., 52(2003), p. 311.
D. Ray, P. Roy, S. Sengupta, S.P. Sengupta, A.K. Mohanty, and M. Misra, A study of dynamic mechanical and thermal behavior of starch/poly (vinylalcohol) based films, J. Polym. Environ., 17(2009), p. 49.
J. Zhou, Y. Ma, L. Ren, J. Tong, Z. Liu, and L. Xie, Preparation and characterization of surface crosslinked TPS/PVA blend films, Carbohydr. Polym., 76(2009), p. 632.
Y.H. Yun and S.D. Yoon, Effect of amylose contents of starches on physical properties and biodegradability of starch/PVA-blended films, Polym. Bull., 64(2010), p. 553.
S.W. Tang, P. Zou, H.G. Xiong, and H.L. Tang, Effect of nano-SiO2 on the performance of starch/polyvinyl alcohol blend films, Carbohydr. Polym., 72(2008), p. 521.
K.M. Dean, M.D. Do, E. Petinakis, and L. Yu, Key interactions in biodegradable thermoplastic starch/poly (vinyl alcohol)/montmorillonite micro-and nanocomposites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 68(2008), p. 1453.
S.D. Yoon, M.H. Park, and H.S. Byun, Mechanical and water barrier properties of starch/PVA composite films by adding nano-sized poly (methyl methacrylate-coacrylamide) particles, Carbohydr. Polym., 87(2012), p. 676.
C. Chawengkijwanich and Y. Hayata, Development of TiO2 powder-coated food packaging film and its ability to inactivate Escherichia coli in vitro and in actual tests, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 123(2008), p. 288.
A. Fujishima, T.N. Rao, and D.A. Tryk, Titanium dioxide photocatalysis, J. Photochem. Photobiol. C, 1(2000), p. 1.
L. Zan, L. Tian, Z.S. Liu, and Z. Peng, A new polystyrene-TiO2 nanocomposite film and its photocatalytic degradation, Appl. Catal., A, 264(2004), p. 237.
Y. Chung, S. Ansari, L. Estevez, S. Hayrapetyan, E.P. Giannelis, and H. Lai, Preparation and properties of biodegradable starch-clay nanocomposites, Carbohydr. Polym., 79(2010), p. 391.
Standard Test Methods for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Philadelphia, 2004.
I.M. Thakore, S. Desai, B.D. Sarawade, and S. Devi, Studies on biodegradability, morphology and thermomechanical properties of LDPE/modified starch blends, Eur. Polym. J., 37(2001), p. 151.
S.A. Amin, M. Pazouki, and A. Hosseinnia, Synthesis of TiO2-Ag nanocomposite with sol-gel method and investigation of its antibacterial activity against E. coli., Powder Technol., 196(2009), p. 241.
R. Zhao, P. Torley, and P.J. Halley, Emerging biodegradable materials: starch- and protein-based bionanocomposites, J. Mater. Sci., 43(2008), p. 3058.
H. Dai, P.R. Chang, F. Geng, J. Yu, and X. Ma, Preparation and properties of thermoplastic starch/montmorillonite nanocomposite using N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) formamide as a new additive, J. Polym. Environ., 17(2009), p. 225.
D. Ray, P. Roy, S. Sengupta, S.P. Sengupta, A.K. Mohanty, and M. Misra, A study of physicomechanical and morphological properties of starch/poly (vinylalcohol) based films, J. Polym. Environ., 17(2009), p. 56.
About this article
Cite this article
Hejri, Z., Seifkordi, A.A., Ahmadpour, A. et al. Biodegradable starch/poly (vinyl alcohol) film reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Int J Miner Metall Mater 20, 1001–1011 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-013-0827-z