Skip to main content


Log in

Matched glass-to-Kovar seals in N2 and Ar atmospheres

  • Published:
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The oxidation of Kovar alloy was investigated, the wetting and spreading behavior of hard and soft glasses on Kovar alloy were studed by using the sessile drop method, and the quality and the seal strength of glass-Kovar seals were tested. The experimental results indicated that the preoxidation of Kovar alloy for approximately 10 min at 700°C in air resulted in excellent adherence in glass-Kovar seals. The wetting and spreading behavior of glass on preoxidized Kovar alloy were superior to that on nonoxidized Kovar alloy. The wetting ability of ASF110 glass, at 950°C and 980°C in Ar and N2 atmospheres, was significantly superior to that of ASF200R and ASF700 glasses. The seal quality of the glass-preoxidized Kovar seal was superior to that of the glass-nonoxidized Kovar seal. The shear strength of the ASF110 glass-preoxidized Kovar seal, which was prepared at 980°C for 20 min in an Ar atmosphere, was approximately 3.9 MPa.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. I.W. Donald, Preparation, properties and chemistry of glass- and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals and coatings, J. Mater. Sci., 28(1993), No. 11, p. 2841.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. I.W. Donald, P.M. Mallinson, B.L. Metcalfe, L.A. Gerrard, and J.A. Fernie, Recent developments in the preparation, characterization and applications of glass- and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals and coatings, J. Mater. Sci., 46(2011), No. 7, p. 1975.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. G. Leichtfried, G. Thurner, and R. Weirather, Molybdenum alloys for glass-to-metal seals, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 16(1998), No. 1, p. 13.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. J. McCormick and L. Zakraysek, A metallographic test for glass-to-metal seal quality, [in]_17th Annual Proceedings Reliability Physics, San Francisco, 1979, p. 44.

    Google Scholar 

  5. A. Zanchetta, P. Lefort, and E. Gabbay, Thermal expansion and adhesion of ceramic to metal sealings: case of porcelain-Kovar junctions, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 15(1995), No. 3, p. 233.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. A. Zanchetta, P. Lortholary, and P. Lefort, Ceramic to metal sealings: interfacial reactions mechanism in a porcelain-Kovar junction, J. Alloy Compd., 228(1995), No. 1, p. 86.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. T.S. Chern and H.L. Tsai, Wetting and sealing of interface between 7056 Glass and Kovar alloy, Mater. Chem. Phys., 104(2007), No. 2–3, p. 472.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. W.F. Yext, B.J. Shook, W.S. Katzenberger, and R.C. Michalek, Improved glass-to-metal sealing through furnace atmosphere composition control, IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol., CHMT-6(1983), No. 4, p. 455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. W.B. Thomas, Matched glass-to-metal seal improvements by controlled atmosphere metal oxidation, Solid State Technol., 29(1986), No. 9, p. 73.

    Google Scholar 

  10. D.W. Kuo, W.B. Leng, and Z.S. Shen, Effect of Kovar alloy oxidized in simulated N2/H2O atmosphere on its sealing with glass, J. Univ. Sci. Technol. Beijing, 15(2008), No. 3, p. 267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. M. Wu, X.B. He, Z.S. Shen, and X.H. Qu, Preparation, crystallization, and wetting of ZnO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics for sealing to Kovar, Int. J. Miner. Met. Mater., 16(2009), No. 5, p. 586.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. J.A. Pask, New techniques in glass-to-metal sealing, [in]_Proceedings of the IRE: Waves and Electrons Section, New York, 1948, p. 286.

    Google Scholar 

  13. D.Q. Lei, Z.F. Wang, J. Li, J.B. Li, and Z.J. Wang, Experimental study of glass to metal seals for parabolic trough receivers, Renew. Energy, 48(2012), p.85.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. J.A. Pask, From technology to the science of glass/metal and ceramic/metal sealing, Ceram. Bull., 66(1987), No. 11, p. 1587.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cheng-hsien Kuo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kuo, Ch., Cheng, Py. & Chou, Cp. Matched glass-to-Kovar seals in N2 and Ar atmospheres. Int J Miner Metall Mater 20, 874–882 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: