The Effects of Concurrent Training Order on Satellite Cell-Related Markers, Body Composition, Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Older Men with Sarcopenia



Concurrent Training (CT) is described as a combination of resistance training (RT) and endurance training (ET) in a periodized program to maximize all aspects of physical performance. To date, effects of CT order on muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness adaptations are controversial. Owing to the age-related decrement in satellite cells (SC) which are critical for fiber repair, conservation, muscle hypertrophy as well as cardiorespiratory fitness, the present study examined the response of SC related markers to CT order in older sarcopenic men.


Thirty older men (age= 64.3 ± 3.5 years) were randomly assigned into one of 3 groups, ET followed by RT (E+R; n=10), RT followed by ET (R+E; n= 10) or a control (C; n=10).


The training protocol consisted of 3 exercise sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after the final training session.


Weight, skeletal muscle mass, lower and upper body power, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), Paired Box 7 (Pax7), and Myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) significantly increased, while were percent body fat significantly decreased following E+R and R+E compared to C. Importantly, the improvement in skeletal muscle mass, lower and upper body power, Myf5 and Pax7 in the E+R was significantly greater than the R+E group. Myogenin (Myog) and Paired Box 3 (Pax3) significantly increased (P < 0.01) in both training groups compared to no changes in C.


An 8-week CT intervention improves SC related markers, body composition and enhances power and VO2max in older sarcopenic participants, regardless of the order of RT and ET. However, performing ET before RT may be more effective at enhancing skeletal muscle mass, Myf5 and Pax7, in addition to both lower and upper body power. While both CT programs produced notable physiological and performance benefits, performing ET before RT during CT may provide the greatest therapeutic benefits for aging individuals.

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The authors wish to thank all the participants in this research project.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Julien S. Baker.

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Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Disclosure statement: Babak Hooshmand Moghadam has nothing to disclose; Reza Bagheri has nothing to disclose; Damoon Ashtary-Larky has nothing to disclose; Grant M. Tinsley has nothing to disclose; Mozhgan Eskandari has nothing to disclose; Julien S Baker has nothing to disclose; Bizhan Hooshmand Moghadam has nothing to disclose; Richard B. Kreider has nothing to disclose; Alexei Wong has nothing to disclose.

Financial Support: This study was supported by Faculty of sports sciences of Tehran University.

Ethical standard: This study was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board of Tehran University.

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Moghadam, B.H., Bagheri, R., Ashtary-Larky, D. et al. The Effects of Concurrent Training Order on Satellite Cell-Related Markers, Body Composition, Muscular and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Older Men with Sarcopenia. J Nutr Health Aging 24, 796–804 (2020).

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Key words

  • Sarcopenia
  • satellite cells
  • hypertrophy
  • concurrent training