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Differences in the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling, Nursing Home and Hospitalized Individuals. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract

Background

Sarcopenia is an age-related disease which leads to a decline in muscle mass and function and is one of the most important health issues in elderly people with a high rate and variety of adverse outcomes.

Objective

The current systematic review and meta-analysis study was carried out to estimate the overall prevalence of sarcopenia in both males and females in different regions around the world and to show the major differences in its occurrence among different populations.

Design

A systematic review and metaanalysis of studies published in PubMed (Medline) and Scopus.

Participants

Community dwelling, nursing home and hospitalized older adults aged over 60 years.

Measurements

Sarcopenia was defined by the major validated diagnostic criteria, such as the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) and the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS). The model used was the random effect model for estimating the prevalence of sarcopenia. The sex-specific prevalence of sarcopenia as well as 95% CI (Confidence interval) were calculated using MetaXL (version 5.3). Heterogeneity assessment was carried out by subgroup analysis.

Results

We included 41 studies with a total of 34955 participants. The prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling individuals in the included studies were 11% (95% CI: 8–13%) in men and 9% (95% CI: 7–11%) in women. The prevalence of sarcopenia in nursing-home individuals in the included studies were 51% (95% CI: 37–66%) in men and 31% (95% CI: 22–42%) in women and in hospitalized individuals were 23% (95%, CI: 15–30%) in men and 24% (95% CI: 14–35%) in women.

Conclusions

Despite the differences encountered between the studies, regarding diagnostic tools used to measure of muscle mass, different regions around the world and different populations and clinical settings, this systematic review revealed that a significant proportion of old people has sarcopenia (major in nursing homes), even in populations healthy in general. However, sarcopenia is caused by the aging progress, early diagnosis and individualized care, including physical activity and nutrition, can prevent some adverse outcomes in all populations.

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Papadopoulou, S.K., Tsintavis, P., Potsaki, G. et al. Differences in the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling, Nursing Home and Hospitalized Individuals. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 24, 83–90 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-019-1267-x

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Key words

  • Sarcopenia
  • nursing home
  • elderly
  • reduced muscle mass