The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 1128–1132 | Cite as

Effect of Vitamin D Treatment on Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolism in Lebanese Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Cynthia El HajjEmail author
  • J.-M. Chardigny
  • Y. Boirie
  • K. Yammine
  • M. Helou
  • S. Walrand



A low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH) D)] concentration was shown to correlate with higher fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels. Since age affect insulin sensitivity and the metabolism, we aimed in this randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis and index of insulin resistance in elderly subjects living in Beirut, Lebanon.


Participants (n= 115) deficient in vitamin D were randomly divided into two groups, a group receiving 30,000 IU cholecalciferol/week for a period of 6 months, and a placebo group. The index of insulin resistance HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) was the primary outcome. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic markers were also measured at start of treatment and at 6 months.


Vitamin D supplementation led to significant improvements in blood levels of [25(OH) D] (P< 0.0001), and a significant decreased of HOMA, PTH and FBG concentrations (P< 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to placebo. No significant changes were observed in HbA1c levels for both groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations have also decreased significantly in the intervention group (P< 0.0001).


Short-term supplementation with cholecalciferol improved vitamin D status, and markers of insulin resistance in healthy elder population. This trial was registered at; Identifier number#:NCT03478475

Key words

Vitamin D HOMA-IR glucose HbA1c insulin resistance 



25-hydroxyvitamin D


body mass index


fasting blood glucose


glycated hemoglobin


homeostatic model assessment


insulin resistance


parathyroid hormone


  1. 1.
    Grammatiki M, Rapti E, Karras S. Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus: causal or casual association? Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017; 18: 227–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Matthys C, et al. Metabolic syndrome, vitamin D and bone status in South Asian women living in Auckland, New Zealand: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind vitamin D intervention. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gulseth HL, Gjelstad IM, Birkeland KI, Drevon CA. Vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2013;11:968–984CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mitri J, Muraru MD, Pittas AG. Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011; 65:1005–1015CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pittas AG, Chung M, Trikalinos T, et al. Systematic review: vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:307–314CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grimnes G, Figenschau Y, Almås B, Jorde R. Vitamin D, insulin secretion, sensitivity, and lipids: results from a case-control study and a randomized controlled trial using hyperglycemic clamp technique. Diabetes. 2011;60:2748–2757CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wagner H, Alvarßson M, Mannheimer B, Degerblad M, Östenson CG. No effect of high-dose vitamin D treatment on β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, or glucose homeostasis in subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:345–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hilger J, Friedel A, Herr R, Rausch T, Roos F, Wahl DA, Pierroz DD, Weber P, Hoffmann K. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide. Br J Nutr. 2014; 111:23–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arabi A, El-Rassi R, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Hypovitaminosis D in developing countriesprevalence, risk factors, and impact on outcomes. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010; 6:550–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McGill T, Stewart JM, Lithander F, Strik CM, Poppitt SD. Relationship of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity. Nutr J. 2008; 7;4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 690–693.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baynes KC, Boucher BJ, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Vitamin D, glucose tolerance and insulinaemia in elderly men. Diabetologia. 1997; 40: 344–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sepehrmanesh Z, Kolahdooz F, Abedi F, Mazroii N, Assarian A, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh A. Vitamin D supplementation affects the Beck Depression Inventory, insulin resistance, and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder. Am Soc Nutr. 2015Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Von Hurst P, Stonehouse W, Coad J. Vitamin D status of South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient–a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2010; 103(4):549–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    George PS, Pearson ER, Witham MD. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control and insulin resistance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetic Medecine. 2012; 29 (8):142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oosterwerff MM, Eekhoff EM, Van Schoor NM, Boeke AJ, Nanayakkara P, Meijnen R, Knol DL, Kramer MH, Lips P. Effect of moderate-dose vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity in vitamin D-deficient non-Western immigrants in the Netherlands: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100:152–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schnatz PF, Jiang X, Vila-Wright S, Aragaki AK, Nudy M, O’Sullivan DM, Jackson R, LeBlanc E, Robinson JG, Shikany JM, et al. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and cholesterol profiles in the Women’s Health Initiative calcium/vitamin D randomized trial. Menopause. 2014; 21:823–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Asemi Z, Hashemi T, Karamali M, Samimi M, Esmaillzadeh A. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid concentrations, inflammation, and oxidative stress in gestational diabetes: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1425–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pittas A, Harris S, Satrk P, Dawson-Hughes B. The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults. Diabetes Care. 2007;30: 980–986CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Teegarden D, Donkin SS. Vitamin D: emerging new roles in insulin sensitivity. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2009; 22(1): 82–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nasrallah M, Nakhoul N, Nasreddine L, Mouneimne Y, Abiad M, Ismaeel H, Tamim H. Prevalence of diabetes in greater Beirut area: worsening over time. Endocrine Practice. 2017; 23 (9): 1091–1100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mehio Sibai AM, Nasreddine L, Mokdad A, Adra N, Tabet M, Hwalla N. Nutrition transition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the MENA countries: reviewing the evidence. Ann Nutr Metab. 2010; 57:193–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academics Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nagpal J, Pande JN, Bhartia A. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med. 2009; 26; 19–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chiu K.C., Chu A., Go V.L.W., Saad M.F. Hypovitaminosis D is aßsociated with insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004; 79:820–825.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee DM, Rutter MK, O’Neill TW, Boonen S, Vanderschueren D, et al. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older European men. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009; 161:947–954.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Taylor WH, Khaleeli AA. Coincident diabetes mellitus and primary hyperparathyroidism. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2001; 17(3):175–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia El Hajj
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • J.-M. Chardigny
    • 2
  • Y. Boirie
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. Yammine
    • 4
    • 5
  • M. Helou
    • 6
  • S. Walrand
    • 2
  1. 1.Département de Diététique et de NutritionHôpital Saint-CharlesBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.INRA, UMR 1019, UNH, CRNH Auvergne, Clermont-FerrandFrance Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, Unité de NutritionClermont-FerrandFrance
  3. 3.CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service de Nutrition CliniqueClermont-FerrandFrance
  4. 4.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryLebanese American University-Rizk HospitalBeirutLebanon
  5. 5.Center for Evidence-based Anatomy, Sports & Orthopedic ResearchJdeidehLebanon
  6. 6.Department of Medicine, School of MedicineLebanese American UniversityBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations