Influence of Dietary Patterns and Inflammatory Markers on Atherosclerosis Using Ankle Brachial Index as a Surrogate
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To examine the influence of various dietary patterns on ankle-brachial index (ABI) as a surrogate of atherosclerosis, taking into account serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and factors that predispose to inflammation and/or endothelial damage (homocysteine) or may be protective (tryptophan, vitamin D), as well as age, gender, and lifestyle risk factors.
Cross sectional analysis.
Cohort of 4000 men and women aged 65 years living in the community in Hong Kong SAR China.
Interviewer administered questionnaire that includes dietary intake estimation by the food frequency records (from which various dietary patterns can be characterized), socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity. Clinical measurements include body weight and height, and ankle-brachial index using hand-held Doppler machine. Laboratory measurements include assays of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, CRP, homocysteine, and tryptophan using LC/MC methods.
Compared with the lowest quintile of vitamin D level, higher quintile was associated with lower prevalence of ABI <0.9 in women only after multiple adjustments of covariates. In men the low score group of the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was associated with increased odds of having ABI<0.9 after adjusting for all covariates (OR=16.51 (95% CI: 2.21, 123.26)). Similar findings apply to the low score group in the MIND (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay Diet) pattern (OR=2.6 (95% CI: 1.24, 5.42)). In women, ABI<0.9 was associated with low Dietary Quality Index (DQI) score (OR=2.05 (95% CI: 1.22, 3.43)), and low score group of snacks-drinks-milk products dietary pattern (OR=3.07 (95% CI: 1.05, 9.04)). No association was observed for the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Okinawan and “meat-fish” dietary patterns in either men or women.
We conclude that any dietary patterns emphasizing fruit and vegetable intake are associated with better vascular health using ABI as an indicator.
Key wordsDietary pattern atherosclerosis ankle brachial index vitamin D C-Reactive protein
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