To determine the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy products on protein intake in older Americans by performing diet modeling.
Data from What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010 for Americans aged 51 years and older (n=5,389), divided as 51-70 years (n=3,513) and 71 years and older (n=1,876) were used.
Usual protein intake was compared among three dietary models that increased intakes by 100%: (1) plant-based foods; (2) higher protein plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (3) dairy products (milk, cheese, and yogurt). Models (1) and (2) had commensurate reductions in animal-based protein intake.
Doubling intake of plant-based foods (as currently consumed) resulted in a drop of protein intake by approximately 22% for males and females aged 51+ years. For older males and females, aged 71+ years, doubling intake of plant-based foods (as currently consumed) resulted in an estimated usual intake of 0.83±0.02 g/kg ideal body weight (iBW))/day and 0.78±0.01 g/kg iBW/day, respectively. In this model, 33% of females aged 71+ years did not meet the estimated average requirement for protein. Doubling dairy product consumption achieved current protein intake recommendations.
These data illustrate that increasing plant-based foods and reducing animal-based products could have unintended consequences on protein intake of older Americans. Doubling dairy product intake can help older adults get to an intake level of approximately 1.2 g/kg iBW/day, consistent with the growing consensus that older adults need to consume higher levels of protein for health.
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Recommended Dietary Allowance
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Estimated Average Requirement
What We Eat in America
National Cancer Institute
Dietary Reference Intake
United States Department of Agriculture
ideal body weight
actual body weight
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
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Houchins, J.A., Cifelli, C.J., Demmer, E. et al. Diet modeling in older Americans: The impact of increasing plant-based foods or dairy products on protein intake. J Nutr Health Aging 21, 673–680 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-016-0819-6