Relationship between breakfast skipping and obesity among elderly: Cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study

Abstract

Objective

Breakfast skipping is reported to be associated with obesity in children and younger populations; however, few studies report the association among elderly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between breakfast skipping and obesity prevalence among elderly.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Setting

Community-dwelling elderly in Nara, Japan.

Participants

1052 elderly participants (mean age: 71.6 years).

Measurements

Obesity and breakfast skipping were defined as body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 and skipping breakfast one or more times per week, respectively.

Results

Two hundred and seventy-two participants (25.9%) were classified as obese and forty-one (3.9%) were as breakfast skippers. Obesity prevalence was significantly higher in breakfast skippers than in breakfast eaters (43.9% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.007). In multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders (age, sex and alcohol consumption), breakfast skippers showed significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for obesity than breakfast eaters (OR, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.17–4.27; P = 0.015), which continued to be significant after further adjustment for socioeconomic status. In addition, breakfast skippers showed significantly lower daily potassium (P <0.001) and dietary fibre intakes (P = 0.001) and lower subjective physical activity (P = 0.035) than breakfast eaters.

Conclusions

Breakfast skipping was significantly associated with obesity among elderly. Poor diet quality and physical inactivity may be potential intermediators underlying the association between breakfast skipping and obesity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Table 1
Table 2
Table 3

References

  1. 1.

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan 2010; available at: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/eiyou/h22-houkoku.html (in Japanese; accessed on November 25, 2015).

  2. 2.

    Franklin SS, Pio JR, Wong ND et al. Predictors of new-onset diastolic and systolic hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2005;111:1121–1127.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Meigs JB, Wilson PW, Fox CS et al. Body mass index, metabolic syndrome, and risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2906–2912.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    De Stefano F, Zambon S, Giacometti L et al. Obesity, muscular strength, muscle composition and physical performance in an elderly population. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19:785–791.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Jung S, Yabushita N, Kim M et al. Obesity and muscle weakness as risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older Japanese women: a two-year followup investigation. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20:28–34.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Sullivan L et al. Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1867–1872.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4:579–591.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB et al. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:763–778.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Corder K, van Sluijs EM, Steele RM, et al. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:316–321.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Betts JA, Richardson JD, Chowdhury EA, et al. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100:539–547

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJ, et al. The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22:296–302.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Song WO, Chun OK, Obayashi S, et al. Is consumption of breakfast associated with body mass index in US adults? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:1373–1382.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    van der Heijden AA, Hu FB, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of breakfast consumption and weight gain among U.S. men. Obesity. 2007;15:2463–2469.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ 3rd, et al. Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:85–92.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Deshmukh-Taskar P, Nicklas TA, Radcliffe JD, et al. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:2073–2082.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Odegaard AO, Jacobs DR Jr, Steffen LM, et al. Breakfast frequency and development of metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:3100–3106.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Nooyens AC, Visscher TL, Schuit AJ, et al. Effects of retirement on lifestyle in relation to changes in weight and waist circumference in Dutch men: a prospective study. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8:1266–1274.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Purslow LR, Sandhu MS, Forouhi N, et al. Energy intake at breakfast and weight change: prospective study of 6,764 middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:188–192.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bazzano LA, Song Y, Bubes V, et al. Dietary intake of whole and refined grain breakfast cereals and weight gain in men. Obes Res. 2005;13:1952–1960.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Obayashi K, Saeki K, Iwamoto J, et al. Positive effect of daylight exposure on nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:4166–4173.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Takahashi K, Yoshimura Y, Kaimoto T et al. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups for estimating individual nutrient intake. Jpn J Nutr. 2001;59:221–232. (in Japanese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1381–1395.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Huang CJ, Hu HT, Fan YC, et al. Associations of breakfast skipping with obesity and health-related quality of life: evidence from a national survey in Taiwan. Int J Obes. 2010;34:720–725.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Horikawa C, Kodama S, Yachi Y, et al. Skipping breakfast and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian and Pacific regions: a meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2011;53:260–267.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Timlin MT, Pereira MA, Story M, et al. Breakfast eating and weight change in a 5-year prospective analysis of adolescents: Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Pediatrics. 2008;121: e638–e645.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:388–396.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Kant AK, Graubard BI. Within-person comparison of eating behaviors, time of eating, and dietary intake on days with and without breakfast: NHANES 2005-2010. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102:661–70.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Keigo Saeki.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Otaki, N., Obayashi, K., Saeki, K. et al. Relationship between breakfast skipping and obesity among elderly: Cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study. J Nutr Health Aging 21, 501–504 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-016-0792-0

Download citation

Key words

  • Breakfast skipping
  • obesity
  • elderly
  • physical activity
  • diet quality