Nutritional interventions that slow the age-associated decline in renal function in a canine geriatric model for elderly humans

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of feeding traditional and renal protective foods (RPF) supplemented with functional food bioactives on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), lean body percent (LB%), and selected circulating biomarker and metabolite concentrations in a geriatric dog model.

Design

Randomized block design and cross-sectional study. Setting: Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. dog colony.

Participants

Eighty-one geriatric dogs (mean age, 10.4; range, 7.9-14.2 years) and 30 mature-adult dogs (mean age, 5.0; range, 3.3-6.9 years).

Intervention

Geriatric dogs were fed one of three foods (n = 27 per group) for 6 months: a traditional RPF (control) that was energy dense and mildly protein-restricted, or control food supplemented with increasing amounts of functional food bioactives: fish oil, lipoic acid, fruits and vegetables, and higher quality protein sources [functional foods one (FF1) and two (FF2)]. Geriatric dogs were compared before and after the feeding trial with mature adult dogs.

Measurements

Renal function was assessed by GFR, LB% was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and circulating biomarkers and metabolites were measured in blood.

Results

Before the feeding trial, GFR (+28.2%), LB% (+18.6%), and serum total protein (+10.0%) were higher in mature versus healthy geriatric dogs (all P<0.001). Geriatric dogs consuming all three foods increased (P<0.001) GFR over time; group averages ranged from 13.0–16.9%. Dogs fed the highest supplemented level of bioactives (FF2) had lower (P<0.001) symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations (-14.3%). Feeding functional foods did not alter body weight, but increased (P<0.001) serum protein concentration (+6.7%).

Conclusion

Supplementation with functional food bioactives can temporarily reverse the age-associated decline in renal function and serum total protein.

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Figure 1
Figure 2

Abbreviations

AA:

amino acid

aLA:

alpha-linolenic acid

ADMA:

asymmetric dimethylarginine

AOAC:

Association of Analytical Communities

ARA:

arachidonic acid

BUN:

blood urea nitrogen

BW:

body weight

CKD:

chronic kidney disease

Cr:

creatinine

DHA:

docosahexaenoic acid

DPA:

docospentaenoic acid

EPA:

eicosapentaenoic acid

FF1:

functional food one

FF2:

functional food two

FA:

fatty acid

GFR:

glomerular filtration rate

LA:

linoleic acid

LB%:

lean body percent

LSM:

least squares mean

MMA:

monomethylarginine

PUFA:

polyunsaturated fatty acids

RPF:

renal-protective foods

SDMA:

symmetric dimethylarginine

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Correspondence to Jean A. Hall.

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Hall, J.A., Yerramilli, M., Obare, E. et al. Nutritional interventions that slow the age-associated decline in renal function in a canine geriatric model for elderly humans. J Nutr Health Aging 20, 1010–1023 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-015-0636-3

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Key words

  • Dog
  • glomerular filtration rate
  • lean body percent
  • renal biomarkers
  • symmetric dimethylarginine