To examine the effect of a dietary supplement containing bilberry extract (BE) on eye fatigue induced by acute video display terminal (VDT) loads.
Design and setting
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed from August 2012 to February 2013 in the Medical Corporation Jico-kai Yagi Hospital, and the Shinyokohama Shinoharaguchi Orthopedic Surgery and Dermatology Clinic, in Japan.
Two hundred eighty-one office workers aged 20–40 years that used VDTs were screened by critical flicker fusion (CFF) and near point accommodation (NPA).
The participants were randomized to either a BE (480 mg/day) or placebo (vehicle) group, and took allocated capsule, daily, for 8 weeks.
The CFF, NPA, contrast visual acuity, functional visual acuity, keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, and fluorescein tear film break-up time were examined, and 18 subjective symptoms of eye fatigue were evaluated by questionnaire. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. Data were collected both before and after VDT load at baseline, and 4, and 8 weeks after daily supplementation with either BE or placebo.
Of 281 participants screened, 88 having relatively lower levels of CFF and NPA were enrolled in the study. Of these, 37 control and 43 BE group subjects completed the study. The VDT load-induced reduction in CFF was alleviated after 8 weeks of BE supplementation (95% confidence interval, 0.10–1.60; p=0.023), in contrast to placebo supplementation, while NPA variation was not. Of the subjective symptoms of eye fatigue, VDT load-induced ocular fatigue sensation, ocular pain, eye heaviness, uncomfortable sensation, and foreign body sensation were mitigated more in the BE group than in the control group, at week 8 (p<0.05). There were no severe adverse events in either group.
BE supplementation improved some of the objective and subjective parameters of eye fatigue induced by VDT loads.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Bergqvist U. Possible health effects of working with VDUs. British journal of industrial medicine 1989; 46(4): 217–221. e-pub ahead of print 1989/04/01
Knave BG, Wibom RI, Voss M, Hedstrom LD, Bergqvist UO. Work with video display terminals among office employees. I. Subjective symptoms and discomfort. Scand J Work Environ Health 1985; 11(6): 457–466. e-pub ahead of print 1985/12/01
Goto E, Yagi Y, Matsumoto Y, Tsubota K. Impaired functional visual acuity of dry eye patients. American journal of ophthalmology 2002; 133(2): 181–186. e-pub ahead of print 2002/01/29
Thomson WD. Eye problems and visual display terminals—the facts and the fallacies. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 1998; 18(2): 111–119. e-pub ahead of print 1998/08/06
Uchino M, Schaumberg DA, Dogru M, Uchino Y, Fukagawa K, Shimmura S et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease among Japanese visual display terminal users. Ophthalmology 2008; 115(11): 1982–1988. e-pub ahead of print 2008/08/19; doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.06.022
Wolkoff P, Nojgaard JK, Troiano P, Piccoli B. Eye complaints in the office environment: precorneal tear film integrity influenced by eye blinking efficiency. Occupational and environmental medicine 2005; 62(1): 4–12. e-pub ahead of print 2004/12/23; doi: 10.1136/oem.2004.016030
Kurimoto S, Iwasaki T, Nomura T, Noro K, Yamamoto S. Influence of VDT (visual display terminals) work on eye accommodation. Journal of UOEH 1983; 5(1): 101–110. e-pub ahead of print 1983/03/01
Murata K, Araki S, Kawakami N, Saito Y, Hino E. Central nervous system effects and visual fatigue in VDT workers. International archives of occupational and environmental health 1991; 63(2): 109–113. e-pub ahead of print 1991/01/01
Murata K, Araki S, Yokoyama K, Yamashita K, Okumatsu T, Sakou S. Accumulation of VDT work-related visual fatigue assessed by visual evoked potential, near point distance and critical flicker fusion. Industrial health 1996; 34(2): 61–69. e-pub ahead of print 1996/01/01
Saito S, Sotoyama M, Taptagaporn S. Physiological indices of visual fatigue due to VDT operation: pupillary reflexes and accommodative responses. Industrial health 1994; 32(2): 57–66. e-pub ahead of print 1994/01/01
Friedman NJ. Impact of dry eye disease and treatment on quality of life. Current opinion in ophthalmology 2010; 21(4): 310–316. e-pub ahead of print 2010/05/15; doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32833a8c15
Miljanovic B, Dana R, Sullivan DA, Schaumberg DA. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision-related quality of life. American journal of ophthalmology 2007; 143(3): 409–415. e-pub ahead of print 2007/02/24; doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2006.11.060
Ye Z, Abe Y, Kusano Y, Takamura N, Eida K, Takemoto T et al. The influence of visual display terminal use on the physical and mental conditions of administrative staff in Japan. J Physiol Anthropol 2007; 26(2): 69–73. e-pub ahead of print 2007/04/17
Gopinath B, Schneider J, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Leeder SR et al. Association between diet quality with concurrent vision and hearing impairment in older adults. The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2014; 18(3): 251–256. e-pub ahead of print 2014/03/15; doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0408-x
Russell J, Flood V, Yeatman H, Mitchell P. Prevalence and risk factors of food insecurity among a cohort of older Australians. The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2014; 18(1): 3–8. e-pub ahead of print 2014/01/10; doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0339-6
Neuringer M. Infant vision and retinal function in studies of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: methods, results, and implications. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2000; 71(1 Suppl): 256S–267S. e-pub ahead of print 2000/01/05
Snodderly DM. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. The American journal of clinical nutrition 1995; 62(6 Suppl): 1448S–1461S. e-pub ahead of print 1995/12/01
Lee J, Lee HK, Kim CY, Hong YJ, Choe CM, You TW et al. Purified high-dose anthocyanoside oligomer administration improves nocturnal vision and clinical symptoms in myopia subjects. The British journal of nutrition 2005; 93(6): 895–899. e-pub ahead of print 2005/07/19
Nakaishi H, Matsumoto H, Tominaga S, Hirayama M. Effects of black current anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic 2000; 5(6): 553–562. e-pub ahead of print 2001/01/03
Yoshihara A, Yamanaka K, Kawakami M. Effects of polyphenol on visual fatigue caused by VDT work. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE 2009; 15(3): 339–343. e-pub ahead of print 2009/09/12
Uchino Y, Uchino M, Dogru M, Fukagawa K, Tsubota K. Improvement of accommodation with anti-oxidant supplementation in visual display terminal users. The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2012; 16(5): 478–481. e-pub ahead of print 2012/05/05
Ghosh D, Konishi T. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts: role in diabetes and eye function. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition 2007; 16(2): 200–208. e-pub ahead of print 2007/05/01
Kawabata F, Tsuji T. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans. Biomed Res 2011; 32(6): 387–393. e-pub ahead of print 2011/12/27
Zhang M, Bi LF, Ai YD, Yang LP, Wang HB, Liu ZY et al. Effects of taurine supplementation on VDT work induced visual stress. Amino acids 2004; 26(1): 59–63. e-pub ahead of print 2004/01/31; doi: 10.1007/s00726-003-0032-x
Uchino Y, Uchino M, Dogru M, Ward S, Yokoi N, Tsubota K. Changes in dry eye diagnostic status following implementation of revised Japanese dry eye diagnostic criteria. Japanese journal of ophthalmology 2012; 56(1): 8–13. e-pub ahead of print 2011/11/15; doi: 10.1007/s10384-011-0099-y
Matsunaga N, Imai S, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Yokota S, Araki Y et al. Bilberry and its main constituents have neuroprotective effects against retinal neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. Molecular nutrition & food research 2009; 53(7): 869–877. e-pub ahead of print 2009/05/06; doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200800394
Matsumoto H, Nakamura Y, Tachibanaki S, Kawamura S, Hirayama M. Stimulatory effect of cyanidin 3-glycosides on the regeneration of rhodopsin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2003; 51(12): 3560–3563. e-pub ahead of print 2003/05/29; doi: 10.1021/jf034132y
Miyake S, Takahashi N, Sasaki M, Kobayashi S, Tsubota K, Ozawa Y. Vision preservation during retinal inflammation by anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract: cellular and molecular mechanism. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2012; 92(1): 102–109. e-pub ahead of print 2011/09/07; doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2011.132
Matsumoto H, Kamm KE, Stull JT, Azuma H. Delphinidin-3-rutinoside relaxes the bovine ciliary smooth muscle through activation of ETB receptor and NO/cGMP pathway. Experimental eye research 2005; 80(3): 313–322. e-pub ahead of print 2005/02/22; doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2004.10.002
Nakamura Y, Matsumoto H, Todoki K. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by black currant concentrate in rat thoracic aorta. Japanese journal of pharmacology 2002; 89(1): 29–35. e-pub ahead of print 2002/06/27
Iwasaki-Kurashige K, Loyaga-Rendon RY, Matsumoto H, Tokunaga T, Azuma H. Possible mediators involved in decreasing peripheral vascular resistance with blackcurrant concentrate (BC) in hind-limb perfusion model of the rat. Vascular pharmacology 2006; 44(4): 215–223. e-pub ahead of print 2006/02/02; doi: 10.1016/j.vph.2005.12.001
Kawashima M, Uchino M, Kawazoe T, Kamiyashiki M, Sano K, Tsubota K. A field test of Web-based screening for dry eye disease to enhance awareness of eye problems among general Internet users: a latent strategy to promote health. Journal of medical Internet research 2013; 15(9): e209. e-pub ahead of print 2013/09/28; doi: 10.2196/jmir.2198
Tsubota K, Nakamori K. Dry eyes and video display terminals. The New England journal of medicine 1993; 328(8): 584. e-pub ahead of print 1993/02/25; doi: 10.1056/NEJM199302253280817
Uchino M, Yokoi N, Uchino Y, Dogru M, Kawashima M, Komuro A et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease and its risk factors in visual display terminal users: the Osaka study. American journal of ophthalmology 2013; 156(4): 759–766. e-pub ahead of print 2013/07/31; doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2013.05.040
Kojima T, Ibrahim OM, Wakamatsu T, Tsuyama A, Ogawa J, Matsumoto Y et al. The impact of contact lens wear and visual display terminal work on ocular surface and tear functions in office workers. American journal of ophthalmology 2011; 152(6): 933–940 e932. e-pub ahead of print 2011/08/30; doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.05.025
About this article
Cite this article
Ozawa, Y., Kawashima, M., Inoue, S. et al. Bilberry extract supplementation for preventing eye fatigue in video display terminal workers. J Nutr Health Aging 19, 548–554 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-014-0573-6
- Eye fatigue
- video display terminal
- bilberry extract