Cognitive frailty: Frontiers and challenges

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Kelaiditi E, Cesari M, Canevelli M, van Kan GA, Ouset P, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Ritz P, Duveau F, Soto ME, Provencher V, Nourhashemi F, Salva A, Robert P, Andrieu S, Rolland Y, Touchon J, Fitten, Vellas B (2013) Cognitive Frailty: Rational and definition from an (I.A.N.A./I.A.G.G.) International Consensus Group. J Nutr Health Aging 2013;9:726–734.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Rockwood K, Stolee P, McDowell I (1996) Factors associated with institutionalization of older people in Canada: testing a multifactorial definition of frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc 44(5):578–582.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Panza F, D’Introno A, Colacicco AM, et al (2006) Cognitive frailty: Predementia syndrome and vascular risk factors. Neurobiol Aging 27(7):933–940.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Panza F, Solfrizzi V, Frisardi V, et al (2011) Different models of frailty in predementia and dementia syndromes. J Nutr Health Aging 15(8):711–719.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Pilotto A, Rengo F, Marchionni N, et al (2012) Comparing the prognostic accuracy for all-cause mortality of frailty instruments: a multicentre 1-year follow-up in hospitalized older patients. PLoS One. 7(1):e29090.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Abellan van Kan G, Rolland Y, Houles M, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Soto M, Vellas B (2010) The assessment of frailty in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med 26(2):275–286.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Abellan van Kan G, Rolland Y, Andrieu S, et al (2009) Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force. J Nutr Health Aging 13(10):881–889.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Abellan van Kan G, Rolland Y, Bergman H, Morley JE, Kritchevsky SB, Vellas B (2008) The I.A.N.A Task Force on frailty assessment of older people in clinical practice. J Nutr Health Aging 12(1):29–37.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Chouliara Z, Kearney N, Stott D, Molassiotis A, Miller M (2004) Perceptions of older people with cancer of information, decision making and treatment: a systematic review of selected literature. Ann Oncol 15(11):1596–1602.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Satz P, Morgenstern H, Miller EN, et al (1993) Low education as a possible risk factor for cognitive abnormalities in HIV-1: findings from the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 6(5):503–511.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Stern Y (2002) What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 8(3):448–460.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Stern Y, Albert S, Tang MX, Tsai WY (1999) Rate of memory decline in AD is related to education and occupation: cognitive reserve? Neurology 53(9):1942–1947.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Satz P, Cole MA, Hardy DJ, Rassovsky Y (2011) Brain and cognitive reserve: mediator(s) and construct validity, a critique. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 33(1):121–130.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Okonkwo OC, Cohen RA, Gunstad J, Tremont G, Alosco ML, Poppas A (2010) Longitudinal trajectories of cognitive decline among older adults with cardiovascular disease. Cerebrovasc Dis 30(4):362–373.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Cohen RA, Poppas A, Forman DE, et al (2009) Vascular and cognitive functions associated with cardiovascular disease in the elderly. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 31(1):96–110.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Gunstad J, Cohen RA, Paul RH, Tate DF, Hoth KF, Poppas A (2006) Understanding reported cognitive dysfunction in older adults with cardiovascular disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2(2):213–218.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Devlin KN, Gongvatana A, Clark US, et al (2012) Neurocognitive effects of HIV, hepatitis C, and substance use history. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 18(1):68–78.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Cohen RA, de la Monte S, Gongvatana A, et al (2011) Plasma cytokine concentrations associated with HIV/hepatitis C coinfection are related to attention, executive and psychomotor functioning. J Neuroimmunol 233(1–2):204–210.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cohen RA, Harezlak J, Schifitto G, et al (2010) Effects of nadir CD4 count and duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection on brain volumes in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Neurovirol 16(1):25–32.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Elie M, Cole MG, Primeau FJ, Bellavance F (1998) Delirium risk factors in elderly hospitalized patients. J Gen Intern Med 13(3):204–212.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Robertsson B, Blennow K, Gottfries CG, Wallin A (1998) Delirium in dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 13(1):49–56.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Woods AJ, Mark VW, Pitts AC, Mennemeier M (2011) Pervasive cognitive impairment in acute rehabilitation inpatients without brain injury. PM R 3(5):426–432.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Salive ME, Wallace RB (1995) Lowerextremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. N Engl J Med 332(9):556–561.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Camargo EC, Beiser A, Tan ZS et al (2012) Walking Speed, Handgrip Strength and Risk of Dementia and Stroke: The Framingham Offspring Study. American Academy of Neurology, 64th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, April 21–28, 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Dodge HH, Mattek NC, Austin D, Hayes TL, Kaye JA (2012) In-home walking speeds and variability trajectories associated with mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 78(24):1946–1952.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    McGough EL, Kelly VE, Logsdon RG, McCurry SM, Cochrane BB, Engel JM, Teri L (2011) Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed “up & go” test. Phys Ther 91(8):1198–1207.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Fitzpatrick AL, Buchanan CK, Nahin RL, DeKosky ST, Atkinson HH, Carlson MC, Williamson JD (2007) Associations of gait speed and other measures of physical function with cognition in a healthy cohort of elderly persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62(11):1244–1251.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Deshpande N, Metter EJ, Bandinelli S, Guralnik J, Ferrucci L. Gait speed under varied challenges and cognitive decline in older persons: a prospective study. Age Ageing 2009; 38(5):509–514.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Rosano C, Simonsick EM, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Brach J, Visser M, Yaffe K, Newman AB (2005) Association between physical and cognitive function in healthy elderly: the health, aging and body composition study. Neuroepidemiology 24(1–2):8–14.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Soumare A, Tavernier B, Alperovitch A, Tzourio C, Elbaz A (2009) A crosssectional and longitudinal study of the relationship between walking speed and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(10):1058–1065.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Abellan Van KG, Rolland Y, Andrieu S, Bauer J, Beauchet O, et al (2009) Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force. J Nutr Health Aging 13(10):881–889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Wang L, Larson EB, Bowen JD, van BG (2006) Performance-based physical function and future dementia in older people. Arch Intern Med 166(10):1115–1120.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Hajjar I, Yang F, Sorond F, Jones RN, Milberg W, Cupples LA, Lipsitz LA (2009) A novel aging phenotype of slow gait, impaired executive function, and depressive symptoms: relationship to blood pressure and other cardiovascular risks. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(9):994–1001.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Zimmermann LJ, Ferrucci L, Kiang L, Lu T, Guralnik JM, Criqui MH, Yihua L, McDermott MM (2011) Poorer clock draw test scores are associated with greater functional impairment in peripheral artery disease: the Walking and Leg Circulation Study II. Vasc Med 16(3):173–181.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Verghese J, Robbins M, Holtzer R, Zimmerman M, Wang C, Xue X, Lipton RB (2008) Gait dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment syndromes. J Am Geriatr Soc 56(7):1244–1251.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Verghese J, Wang C, Lipton RB, Holtzer R, Xue X (2007) Quantitative gait dysfunction and risk of cognitive decline and dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78(9):929–935.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Buchman AS, Boyle PA, Wilson RS, Tang Y, Bennett DA (2007) Frailty is associated with incident Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline in the elderly. Psychosom Med 69(5):483–489.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Brinkley TE, Leng X, Miller ME, Kitzman DW, Pahor M, Berry MJ, Marsh AP, Kritchevsky SB, Nicklas BJ (2009) Chronic inflammation is associated with low physical function in older adults across multiple comorbidities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(4):455–461.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Hsu FC, Kritchevsky SB, Liu Y, Kanaya A, Newman AB, Perry SE, Visser M, Pahor M, Harris TB, Nicklas BJ (2009) Association Between Inflammatory Components and Physical Function in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study: A Principal Component Analysis Approach. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(5):581–589.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Scalzo P, Kummer A, Bretas TL, Cardoso F, Teixeira AL (2010) Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor correlate with motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 257(4):540–545.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Erickson KI, Prakash RS, Voss MW, Chaddock L, Heo S, McLaren M, Pence BD, Martin SA, Vieira VJ, Woods JA, McAuley E, Kramer AF (2010) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with age-related decline in hippocampal volume. J Neurosci 30(15):5368–5375.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Yaffe K, Lindquist K, Penninx BW, Simonsick EM, Pahor M, Kritchevsky S, Launer L, Kuller L, Rubin S, Harris T (2003) Inflammatory markers and cognition in wellfunctioning African-American and white elders. Neurology 61(1):76–80.

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adam J. Woods.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Woods, A.J., Cohen, R.A. & Pahor, M. Cognitive frailty: Frontiers and challenges. J Nutr Health Aging 17, 741–743 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-013-0398-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Gait Speed
  • Nutr Health Aging
  • Clinical Dementia Rating
  • Cognitive Reserve