The cognitive impairment of frail older persons

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Morley JE, Vellas B, Abellan van Kan G et al. Frailty consensus: a call to action. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013; 14: 392–397.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    The Orlando Frailty Conference Group. Raising awareness on the urgent need to implement frailty into clinical practice. J Frailty Aging 2013; 2: 121–124.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert MO, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet 2013; 381: 752–762.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cesari M, Abellan Van Kan G, Ariogul S et al. The European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) working group on “Frailty in older persons”. J Frailty Aging 2013; 2: 118–120.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Vellas B, Cestac P, Morley JE. Implementing frailty into clinical practice: we cannot wait. J Nutr Health Aging 2012; 16: 599–600.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Rodríguez-Mañas L, Féart C, Mann G et al. Searching for an Operational Definition of Frailty: A Delphi Method Based Consensus Statement. The Frailty Operative Definition-Consensus Conference Project. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012; 68: 62–67.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: M146–M156.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Raji MA, Al Snih S, Ray LA, Patel KV, Markides KS. Cognitive status and incident disability in older Mexican Americans: findings from the Hispanic established population for the epidemiological study of the elderly. Ethn Dis 2004; 14: 26–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Rajan KB, Hebert LE, Scherr P et al. Cognitive and physical functions as determinants of delayed age at onset and progression of disability. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012; 67: 1419–1426.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Avila-Funes JA, Pina-Escudero SD, Aguilar-Navarro S, Gutierrez-Robledo LM, Ruiz-Arregui L, Amieva H. Cognitive impairment and low physical activity are the components of frailty more strongly associated with disability. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15: 683–689.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Atkinson HH, Rosano C, Simonsick EM et al. Cognitive function, gait speed decline, and comorbidities: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 844–850.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Leurgans SE, Bennett DA. Physical frailty is associated with incident mild cognitive impairment in community-based older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010; 58: 248–255.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Buchman AS, Boyle PA, Wilson RS, Tang Y, Bennett DA. Frailty is associated with incident Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline in the elderly. Psychosom Med 2007; 69: 483–489.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Houles M, Canevelli M, Abellan Van Kan G, Ousset PJ, Cesari M, Vellas B. Frailty and cognition. J Frailty Aging 2012; 1: 56–63.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Yassuda MS, Lopes A, Cachioni M et al. Frailty criteria and cognitive performance are related: data from the FIBRA study in Ermelino Matarazzo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Nutr Health Aging 2012; 16: 55–61.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Cesari M, Vellas B, Gambassi G. The stress of aging. Exp Gerontol 2013; 48: 451–456.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Fulop T, Larbi A, Witkowski JM et al. Aging, frailty and age-related diseases. Biogerontology 2010; 11: 547–563.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Kelaiditi E, Cesari M, Canevelli M et al. Cognitive frailty: rational and definition from an IANA-IAGG international consensus group. J Nutr Health Aging 2013;9:726–734.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cesari M. The multidimentionality of frailty: many faces of one single dice. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15: 663–664.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bernabei R, Venturiero V, Tarsitani P, Gambassi G. The comprehensive geriatric assessment: when, where, how. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2000; 33: 45–56.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Stuck AE, Aronow HU, Steiner A et al. A trial of annual in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments for elderly people living in the community. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1184–1189.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Rockwood K. Making mobility-related disability better: a complex response to a complex problem. BMC Med 2012; 10: 121.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Cesari M, Vellas B, Abellan Van Kan G, Gambassi G. The frailty phenotype and the Frailty Index: different instruments for different purposes. Age Ageing 2013; in press

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Binder EF, Storandt M, Birge SJ. The relation between psychometric test performance and physical performance in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54: M428–M432.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Retornaz F, Monette J, Batist G et al. Usefulness of frailty markers in the assessment of the health and functional status of older cancer patients referred for chemotherapy: a pilot study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008; 63: 518–522.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Gutierrez-Robledo LM, Avila-Funes JA. How to include the social factor for determining frailty? J Frailty Aging 2012; 1: 13–17.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Andrew MK, Mitnitski AB, Rockwood K. Social vulnerability, frailty and mortality in elderly people. PLoS One 2008; 3: e2232.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Cesari M. Role of gait speed in the assessment of older patients. JAMA 2011; 305: 93–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C et al. Revising the definition of Alzheimer’s disease: a new lexicon. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 1118–1127.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Subra J, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Cesari M, Oustric S, Vellas B. The integration of frailty into clinical practice: preliminary results from the gérontopôle. J Nutr Health Aging 2012; 16: 714–720.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Ntlholang O, Kelly RE, Romero-Ortuno R et al. The role the frailty syndrome can play in advocacy and resource allocation for our ageing population. Findings in a Dublin day hospital. J Frailty Aging 2013; in press

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matteo Cesari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cesari, M., Andrieu, S., Rolland, Y. et al. The cognitive impairment of frail older persons. J Nutr Health Aging 17, 735–737 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-013-0396-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Nutr Health Aging
  • Frailty Index
  • Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
  • Physical Frailty
  • Frailty Phenotype