The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 240–251 | Cite as

Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated N-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease

  • P. A. DacksEmail author
  • D. W. Shineman
  • H. M. Fillit


An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ɛ4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs.

Key words

DHA EPA dementia omega-3 fish 


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Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery FoundationSuiteUSA

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