Advertisement

The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 402–410 | Cite as

Probiotics in the gastrointestinal diseases of the elderly

  • G. Malaguarnera
  • F. Leggio
  • M. Vacante
  • M. Motta
  • M. Giordano
  • A. Biondi
  • F. Basile
  • S. Mastrojeni
  • A. Mistretta
  • Mariano MalaguarneraEmail author
  • M. A. Toscano
  • M. Salmeri
Probiotics in the Gastrointestinal Diseases of the Elderly

Abstract

Changes of the gut microflora in elderly appear to involve a reduction in numbers of healthy bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and an increase in numbers of potentially pathogenic species. These changes are generally described as gastrointestinal disorders and infections. This review analyses benefits of probiotics in old people, with particular interesting for the latest researches relevant to elderly people, e.g. trials examining enteric infections, antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, functional bowel problems (constipation and irritable bowel syndrome), inflammatory bowel diseases, stimulation of the immune system and prevention of cancer. A growing number of researches indicates that some probiotic strains may help to maintain the health in old people, suggesting both health and cost-saving benefits in offering fermented dairy products. These benefits include: establishment of balanced intestinal microflora; improving colonization resistance and or prevention of diarrhea; reduction of fecal enzymes; reduction of serum cholesterol; reduction of potential mutagenes; reduction of lactose intolerance; synthesis of vitamins; predigestion of proteins.

Key words

Probiotics elderly diarrhea constipation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baker HC, Tran DN, Thomas LV. Health benefits of probiotics for the elderly: a review of Journal of Foodservice 2009; 20: 250–262Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hopkins MJ, Macfarlane GT. Changes in predominant bacterial populations in human faeces with age and with Clostridium difficile infection. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:448–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hopkins MJ, Sharp R, Macfarlane GT. Variation in human intestinal microbiota with age. Dig Liver Dis 2002; 34: 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tannock GW. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria plenty of scope for fundamental R & D. Trends in Riotechnol 1997; 15: 270–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Simone C, Chiodo F, Delia S, Pastore G, Scalise G, Sorice F, Tonietti G, Zanussi C, Paoloni M, Gargiulo M. Clinical results of a multicenter study with sulbactam/ampicillin for the treatment of patients with lower respiratory and urinary tract infections. J Chemother. 1991; 3: 321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elmer GW, Surawiez CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeuric agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996; 275: 870–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Orrhage K, Sillerström E, Gustafsson JA, Nord CE, Rafter J. Binding of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by intestinal and lactic acid bacteria. Mutat Res. 1994; 311: 239–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh J, Rivenson A, Tomita M, Shimamura S, Ishibashi N, Reddy BS. Bifidobacterium longum, a lactic acid-producing intestinal bacterium inhibits colon cancer and modulates the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis.1997; 18: 833–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holzapfel WH, Schillinger U. Introduction to pre- and probiotics. Food Res Int 2002; 35: 109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cani PD, Delzenne NM. The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease. Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15: 1546–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Joint FAOA/WHO Working Group Report on Drafting Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. London, Ontario, Canada, 30 April and 1 May 2002.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kailasapathy K, Chin J. Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium. Immunol Cell Biol 2000; 78: 80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gill HS, Shu Q, Lin H, Rutherfurd KJ, Cross ML. Protection against translocating Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice by feeding the immuno-enhancing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001. Med Microbiol Immunol 2001; 190: 97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mangell P, Nejdfors P, Wang M, Ahrne S. Westrom B. Thorlacius H. Jeppsson B. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v inhibits Escherichia coli-induced intestinal permeability. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 511–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coakley M, Ross RP, Nordgren M, Fitzgerald G, Devery R, Stanton C. Conjugated linoleic acid biosynthesis by human-derived Bifodobacterium species. J Appl Microbiol 2003; 94: 138–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fonden R, Mogensen G. Tanaka R. Salminen S. Effect of fermented dairy products on intestinal microflora, human nutrition, and health: current knowledge and future perspectives. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation. 2000; 352Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malaguarnera L, Ferlito L, Imbesi RM, Gulizia GS, Di Mauro S, Maugeri D, Malaguamera M, Messina A. Immunosenescence: a review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2001;32:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walker WA. Role of nutrients and bacteria] colonization in the development of intestinal host defense. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000; 30: 2–7Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Luyer MD, Buurman WA, Hadfoune M. Strain-specific effects of probiotics on gut hairier integrity following hemorrhagic shock. Infect Immun 2005; 73: 3689–3692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Canani RB, Cirillo P, Terrin G. Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: a randomised clinical trial of five different preparations. BMJ 2007; 335, 340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kekkonen RA, Lummela N, Karjalainen H. Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2029–2036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malaguamera L, Cristaldi E, Malaguamera M. The role of immunity in elderly cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2010; 74: 40–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Malaguamera L, Ferlito L, Di Mauro S, Imbesi RM, Scalia G, Malaguamera M. Immunosenescence and cancer: a review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2001;32:77–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Candore G, Balistreri CR, Colonna-Romano G, Grimaldi MP, Lio D, Listi’ F, Scola L, Vasto S, Caruso C. Immunosenescence and antiimmunosenescence therapies; the case of probiotics. Rejuvenation Res. 2008;11: 425–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Turchet P, Laurenzan M, Auboiron S, Antoine JM. Effect of fermented milk containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on winter infections in free-living elderly subjects: a randomised, controlled pilot study. J Nutr Health Aging 2003;7:75–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fukushima Y. Improvement of nutritional status and incidence of infection in hospitalised, enterally fed elderly by feeding of fermented milk containing probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (NCC533). Brit J Nutr. 2007; 98: 969–977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Szajewska H. Skórka A. Ruszczynski M. Metaanalysis: Lactobacillus GG for treating acute diarrhoea in children. Aliment Pharm Ther 2007; 25: 871–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Black FT, Andersen PL, Orskov J, Orskov F, Gaarslev K, Laulund S. Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveller’s diarrhea. In: Steffen R (ed) Travel medicine. Conference on international travel medicine 1, Zurich, Switzerland. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1989 333–335Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hilton E. Kolakowski P. Smith M, Singer C. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrhoea preventive. J Travel Med 1997; 4: 3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, Hämäläinen P, Ihantola-Vormisto A, Muurasniemi-Isoviita, Nikkari S, Oksanen T, Pörsti I, Salminen E, Siitonen S, Stuckey H, Toppila A, Vapaatalo H. Prevention of travellers’ diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 1990; 22: 53–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Katelaris PH, Salam I, Farthing MJG. Lactobaclli to prevent traveler’s diarrhea? New Engl J Med 1995; 333: 1360–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2650–2661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McFarland LV. Epidemiology risk factors and treatments for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Dig Dis 1998; 16: 292–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gougoulias C, Tuohy KM, Gibson GR. Dietary based gut flora modulation against Clostridium difficile onset. Food Science and Technology Bulletin Functional Foods 2007; 4: 31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beausoleil M, Fortier N, Guénette S. Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus C11285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J of Gastroenterol. 2007; 21: 732–736Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hickson M, D’souza AL, Muthu N. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics; randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007; 335: 80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wenus C, Goll R, Loken EB. Prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea by a fermented probiotic milk drink. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008; 62: 299–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weichselbaum E. Probiotics and health: a review of the evidence British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin 2009; 34: 340–373Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. JAMA 1994; 271: 1913–1918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Plummer S, Weaver MA, Harris JC. Clostridium difficile pilot study: effects of probiotic supplementation on the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea. Int Microbiol 2004; 7: 59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cremonini F, Talley NJ. Irritable bowel syndrome: epidemiology, natural history, health care seeking and emerging risk factors. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2005; 34:189–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). Irritable bowel syndrome in adults. Diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. NICE clinical guideline 61: Developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care, London, 2008.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Seksik P, Sokol H, Lepage P. Review article: the role of bacteria in onset and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 24: 11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 3503–3506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lin HC. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a framework for understanding irritable bowel syndrome. JAMA 2004; 292: 852–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Drouault-Holowacz S, Bieuvelet S, Burckel AA. double blind randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination in 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2008; 32: 147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sinn DH, Song JH, Kim HJ. Therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus-SDC 2012, 2013 in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2008; 53: 2714–2718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kajander K, Myllyluoma E, Rajilic-Stojanovic M. Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and stabilizes intestinal microbiota. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 48–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 1480–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chmielewska A, Szajewska H. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials: Probiotics for functional constipation. World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16: 69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marteau P. Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in healthy women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16; 587–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Matsumoto K. The effect of a probiotic milk product containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the defecation frequency and the intestinal microflora of sub-optimal health state volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study. Bioscience and Microflora 2006; 25: 39–48Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ouwehand AC, Tiihonen K, Saarinen M, Putaal H, Rautonen N. Influence of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol on healthy elderly: intestinal and immune parameters. Brit J Nutr 2009; 3; 367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Banaszkiewicz A, Szajewska H. Probiotics in the treatment of constipation: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pediatria Wspolczesna 2005; 7: 9–14Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Khedkar CD, Ouwehand AC. Modifying the gastrointestinal microbiota with probiotics. In: Gastrointestinal Microbiology (eds Ac Ouwehand & EE Vaugban), 2006 pp 315–333 Taylor & Francies Group, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hughes R, Rowland IR. Metabolic activities of the gut microflora in relation to cancer. Microb Ecol Health D 2000; 11: 179–185Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Spanhaak S, Havenaar R. Schaafsma G. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52: 899–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    De Preter V. Effect of dietary intervention with different pre- and probiotics on intestinal bacterial enzyme activities. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008; 62: 225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goldin BR, Gorbach SL. The relationship between diet and rat faecal bacterial enzymes implicated in colon cancer. J Natl Cancer 1976; 57: 371–375Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tomoda T, Nakano Y, Kageyama T. Effect of yogurt and yogurt supplemented with Bifidobacterium and/or lactulose in healthy persons: a comparative study. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1991; 10: 123–130Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brigidi P, Vitali B, Swennen E, Bazzozzhi G, Matteuzzi D. Effects of probiotic administration upon the composition and enzymatic activity of human faecal microbiota for patients with irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhea. Res Microbiol 2001; 152:735–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ouwehand AC, Lagstrom H, Suomalainen T, Salminen S. Effect of probiotics on constipation, fecal azoreductase activity and fecal mucin content in the elderly. Ann Nutr Metabol 2002; 46: 159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Malaguamera M, Gargante MP, Malaguamera G, Salmeri M, Mastrojeni S, Rampello L, Pennisi G, Li Volti G, Galvano F. Bifidobacterium combined with fructo-oligosaccharide versus lactulose in the treatment of patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 22: 199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sheth AA, Longo W, Floch MH. Diverticular disease and diverticulitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2008: 103: 1550–1556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sandler RS, Everhart JE, Donowitz M. The burden of selected digestive diseases in the United States. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 1500–1511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Petruzziello L, Iacopini F, Bulajie M, Shan S, Costamagna G. Review article: uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 1379–1391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stollman N, Raskin JB Diverticular disease of the colon. Lancet 2004; 363: 631–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Shanahan F. Turbo probiotics for IBD.Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 1297–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Giaccari S, Tronci S, Falconieri M, Ferrieri A. Long-term treatment with rifaximin and lactobacilli in post-diverticillitic stenoses of the colon. Riv Eur Sci Med Farmacol 1993; 15:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Elisei W. Mesalazine and/or Lactobacillus casei in Preventing Recurrence of Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon A Prospective, Randomized, Open-label Study. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40: 312–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fricu P, Zavoral M. The effect of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15:313–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Malaguamera M. Greco F, Barone G, Gargante MP, Malaguamera M, Toscano MA. Bifidobacterium longum with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) treatment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dig Dis Sci. 2007; 52: 3259–3265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kleessen B, Hartmann L, Blaut M. Oligofructose and long-chain inulin: influence on the gut microbial ecology of rats associated with a human faecal flora. Br J Nutr 2001;86:291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lamika P, Tsuchiya J, Pathak S, Okura R, Solimene U, Jain S, Kawakita S, Marotta F. Probiotics in Diverticular Disease of the Colon: an Open Label Study. J Gastroiniestin Liver Dis 2010; 19:31–36Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shanahan F. The host-microbe interface within the gut. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2002; 16: 915–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Garcá-Lafuente A. Antolín M, Guarner F, et al. Incrimination of anaerobic bacteria in the induction of experimental colitis. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: 10–15Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maki M, Mustalahti K, Korhonen J, Kulmala P, Haapalahti M, Karttunen T. Prevalence of celiac disease among children in Finland. New Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 2517–2524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stepniak DL, Spaenij-Dekking C, Mitea M, Moester A. de Ru, Baak-Pablo R, van Veelen P, Edens L, Koning F. Highly efficient gluten degradation with a newly identified prolyl endoprotease: implications for celiac disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 291: 621–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shan L, Qiao SW, Arentz-Hansen H, Molberg O, Gray GM, Sollid LM, Khosla C. Identification and analysis of multivalent proteolytically resistant peptides from gluten: implications for celiac sprue. J. Proteome Res 2005; 4: 1732–1741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shan L, Molberg O, Parrot I, Hausch F, Filiz F, Gray GM, Sollid LM. Khosla C. Structural basis for gluten intolerance in celiac sprue. Science 2002; 297: 2275–2279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chand N, Mihas AA. Celiac disease: current concepts in diagnosis and treatment. J. Clin. Gastroenterol 2006; 40: 3–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gobbetti M, Rizzello CG, Di Cagno R, De Angelis M Sourdough lactobacilli and celiac disease. Food Microbiol 2007; 24: 187–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    D’Arienzo R, Maurano F, Lavermicocca P, Ricca E, Rossi M. Cytokine 2009; 48: 254–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    D’Arienzo R, Maurano F, Luongo D, Mazzarella G, Stefanile R, Troncone R Adjuvant effect of Lactobacillus casei in a mouse model of gluten sensitivity. Immunol Lett 2008; 119: 78–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mohamadzadeh M, Olson S, Kalina WV, Ruthel G, Demmin GL, Warfield KL. Lactobacilli activate human dendritic cells that skew T cells toward T helper 1 polarization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:2880–2285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pochard P, Gosset P, Grangette C, Andre C, Tonnel AB, Pestel J. Lactic acid bacteria inhibit TH2 cytokine production by mononuclear cells from allergic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110: 617–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Heufler C, Koch F, Stanzl U, Topar G, Wysocka M, Trinchieri G. Interleukin-12 is produced by dendritic cells and mediates T helper 1 development as well as interferon-c production by T helper 1 cells. Eur J Immunol 1996; 26: 659–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Asseman C, Mauze S, Leach MW, Coffman RL, Powrie F An essential role for interleukin 10 in the function of regulatory T cells that inhibit intestinal inflammation. J Exp Med 1999; 190: 995–1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pool-Zobel BL, Neudecker C, Domizla I, Ji S, Schillinger U, Rumney C. Lactobacillus — and bifidobacterium -mediated antigenotoxicity in the colon of rats. Nutr Cancer 1996; 26: 365–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rangavajhyala N, Shahani KM, Sridevi G, Srikumaran S. Non lipopolysaccharide component(s) of Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulate(s) the production of interleukin-1a and tumor necrosis factor-a by murine macrophages. Nutr Cancer 1997; 28: 130–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Marteau P, Lémann M, Seksik P. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn’s disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled GETAID trial. Gut 2006; 55: 842–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Van Gossum A, Dewit O, Louis E. Multicenter randomized-controlled clinical trial of probiotics (Lactobacillus johnsonii, LA1) on early endoscopic recurrence of Crohn’s disease after ileo-caecal resection. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13: 135–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Prantera C, Scrobano ML, Falasco G. Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn’s disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG. Gut 2002; 51:405–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guslandi M, Mezzi G, Sorghi M. Saccharomyces boulardii in maintenance treatment of Crohn’s disease. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45: 1462–1464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Carter MJ, Lobo AJ, Travis SPL. Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults; on behalf of the IBD Section of the British Society of Gastroenterology. Gut 2004; 53(Suppl. V): v1–v6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Borruel N. Casellas F. Antolín M, Llopis M. Carol M, Espíin E, Naval J, Guarner F. Malagelada JR. Effects of nonpathogenic bacteria on cytokine secretion by human intestinal mucosa. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 865–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rembacken BJ, Snelling AM, Hawkey PM. Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomized trial. Lancet 1999; 35:635–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kruis W, Fric P, Pokrotnieks J. Maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis with the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is as effective as with standard mesalazine. Gut 2004; 53: 1617–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kato K, Mizuno S, Umesaki Y. Randomized placebo controlled trial assessing the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 1133–1141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ishikawa H, Akedo I, Umesaki Y. Tanaka R, Imaoka A, Otani T. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of bifidobacteria-fermented milk on ulcerative colitis. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 22: 56–63Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pardi DS, Sandborn WJ. Systematic review: the management of pouchitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23:1087–1096Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yu ED, Shao Z, Shen B. Pouchitis. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 13:5598–5604Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gionchetti P, Rizzello F. Venturi A. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U. Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent of refractory pouchitis. Gut 2004; 53: 108–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Helwig U. Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 1202–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kuisma J, Mentula S, Jarvinen H. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on ileal pouch inflammation and microbial flora. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Calla A, Rao DR, Chawan CB, Shackelford I. Bifidobacterium longum and lactulose suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Careinogenesis 1997; 18:517–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Young GP. Prevention of colon cancer: Role of short chain fatty acids produced by intestinal flora. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr 1996; 5: 44–47Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Topping DL. Short chain fatty acids produced by intestinal bacteria. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr 1996; 5: 15–19Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ohashi Y, Nakai S, Tsukamoto T., Masumori N, Akaza H, Miyanaga N. Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urol Int. 2002; 68: 273–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rafter JJ. The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention. Scand J Gastroenterol 1995; 30: 497–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Moore WE. Holdeman LV. Human fecal flora: the normal flora of 20 Japanese-Hawaiians. Appl Microbial 1995; 27: 961–979Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Salminen S, Bouley C, Boutron-Ruault MC, Cummings JH, Franck A, Gibson GR, Isolauri E. Moreau MC, Roberfroid M. Rowland I. Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. Brit J Nutr 1998; 80: 147–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Warzl B. Natural killer cells, probiotics and cancer. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebioties 2008; 3: 141–.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Zaharoni H, Rimon E, Vardi H, Friger M, Bolotin A, Shahar DR. Probiotics improve bowel movements in hospitalized elderly patients- the Proage Study. The Journal of Nutrition. Health & Aging 2011; 15:215–220Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Malaguarnera
    • 1
  • F. Leggio
    • 2
  • M. Vacante
    • 2
  • M. Motta
    • 2
  • M. Giordano
    • 2
  • A. Biondi
    • 3
  • F. Basile
    • 3
  • S. Mastrojeni
    • 1
  • A. Mistretta
    • 4
  • Mariano Malaguarnera
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. A. Toscano
    • 1
  • M. Salmeri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Senescence, Urological and Neurological SciencesUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Hygiene and Public HealthUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

Personalised recommendations