Skip to main content
Log in

Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women

  • JNHA: Clinical Trials and Aging
  • Published:
The journal of nutrition, health & aging

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Lycopene is a carotenoid commonly found in tomatoes and tomato products which acts as an antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress and osteoporosis risk. We wanted to determine the effects of a lycopene-restricted diet on oxidative stress parameters and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women.

Setting

St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Participants and Study Design

23 healthy postmenopausal women, 50–60 years old, provided blood samples at baseline and following a one-month lycopene-depletion period.

Measurements

Serum samples were analyzed for carotenoids; the oxidative stress parameters protein thiols and thiobarbituric-malondialdehyde reactive substances; the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the bone turnover markers bone alkaline phosphatase and crosslinked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx). A paired t-test was used to test for significant differences in bone turnover markers, oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant status after lycopene restriction.

Results

Dietary lycopene restriction resulted in significantly decreased serum lycopene (p<0.0001), lutein/zeaxanthin (p<0.01), and α-/β-carotene (p<0.05). GPx (p<0.01), lipid and protein oxidation increased (not significant), while CAT and SOD were significantly depressed (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). These changes coincided with significantly increased NTx (p<0.05).

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the daily consumption of lycopene may be important as it acts as an antioxidant to decrease bone resorption in postmenopausal women and may therefore be beneficial in reducing the risk of osteoporosis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Rao AV, Agarwal S: Role of antioxidant lycopene in cancer and heart disease. J Am Coll Nutr 2000; 19:563–569

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Boileau TW, Boileau AC, Erdman JW, Jr.: Bioavailability of all-trans and cisisomers of lycopene. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2002; 227:914–919

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Rao AV, Rao LG: Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacol Res 2007; 55:207–216

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Di Mascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H: Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 1989; 274:532–538

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Rao AV: Processed tomato products as a source of dietary lycopene: bioavailability and antioxidant properties. Can J Diet Pract Res 2004; 65:161–165

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Bose KS, Agrawal BK: Effect of lycopene from tomatoes (cooked) on plasma antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation rate and lipid profile in grade-I hypertension. Ann Nutr Metab 2007; 51:477–481

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Gupta NP, Kumar R: Lycopene therapy in idiopathic male infertility — a preliminary report. Int Urol Nephrol 2002; 34:369–372

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Palan P, Naz R: Changes in various antioxidant levels in human seminal plasma related to immunoinfertility. Arch Androl 1996; 36:139–143

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Bates CJ, Lean ME, Mansoor MA, Prentice A: Nutrient intakes; biochemical and risk indices associated with Type 2 diabetes and glycosylated haemoglobin, in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over. Diabet Med 2004; 21:677–684

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Ford ES, Will JC, Bowman BA, Narayan KM: Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149:168–176

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Foy CJ, Passmore AP, Vahidassr MD, Young IS, Lawson JT: Plasma chain-breaking antioxidants in Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Qjm 1999; 92:39–45

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Longnecker MP, Kamel F, Umbach DM, Munsalerosis. Neuroepidemiology 2000; 19:210–216

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Rissanen T, Voutilainen S, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, Salonen JT: Low plasma lycopene concentration is associated with increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20:2677–2681

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Fuhrman B, Elis A, Aviram M: Hypocholesterolemic effect of lycopene and beta-carotene is related to suppression of cholesterol synthesis and augmentation of LDL receptor activity in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997; 233:658–662

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Ching S, Ingram D, Hahnel R, Beilby J, Rossi E: Serum levels of micronutrients, antioxidants and total antioxidant status predict risk of breast cancer in a case control study. J Nutr 2002; 132:303–306

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Cramer DW, Kuper H, Harlow BL, Titus-Ernstoff L: Carotenoids, antioxidants and ovarian cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 2001; 94:128–134

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Sakr W, Djuric Z, Pollak MN, Khachik F, Li YW, Banerjee M, Grignon D, Bertram JS, Crissman JD, Pontes EJ, Wood DP, Jr.: Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10:861–868

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Rao LG, Mackinnon ES, Josse RG, Murray TM, Strauss A, Rao AV: Lycopene consumption decreases oxidative stress and bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 2007; 18:109–115

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Hoppe PP, Kramer K, van den Berg H, Steenge G, van Vliet T: Synthetic and tomato-based lycopene have identical bioavailability in humans. Eur J Nutr 2003; 42:272–278

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Dixon ZR, Burri BJ, Clifford A, Frankel EN, Schneeman BO, Parks E, Keim NL, Barbieri T, Wu MM, Fong AK, et al.: Effects of a carotene-deficient diet on measures of oxidative susceptibility and superoxide dismutase activity in adult women. Free Radic Biol Med 1994; 17:537–544

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Dixon ZR, Shie F-S, Warden BA, Burri BJ, Neidlinger TR: The Effect of a Low Carotenoid Diet on Malondialdehyde-Thiobarbituric Acid (MDA-TBA) Concentrations in Women: A Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study. J Am Coll Nutr 1998; 17:54–58

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Omaye ST, Burri BJ, Swendseid ME, Henning SM, Briggs LA, Bowen HT, Ota RB: Blood antioxidants changes in young women following beta-carotene depletion and repletion. J Am Coll Nutr 1996; 15:469–474

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Burri BJ, Neidlinger TR, Clifford AJ: Serum Carotenoid Depletion Follows First-Order Kinetics in Healthy Adult Women Fed Naturally Low Carotenoid Diets. J. Nutr. 2001; 131:2096–2100

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. U.S. Department of Agriculture ARS: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Lycopene (μg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content. United States Department of Agriculture, 2005

  25. Stahl W, Sies H: Uptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat-processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans. J Nutr 1992; 122:2161–2166

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Hu ML: Measurement of Protein Thiol Groups and Glutathione in Plasma. Methods Enzymol 1994; 233:380–385

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Draper HH, Squires EJ, Mahmoodi H, Wu J, Agarwal S, Hadley MA: Comparative Evaluation of Thiobarbituric Acid Methods for the Determination of Malondialdehyde in Biological Materials. Free Radic Biol Med 1993; 15:353–363

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Aebi HE: Catalase. Weinheim, Verlag Chemie, 1983

    Google Scholar 

  29. Misra HP, Fridovich I: The Role of Superoxide Anion in the Auto-oxidation of Epinephrine and a Simple Assay for Superoxide Dismutase. J. Biol. Chem. 1972; 247:3170–3175

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Pleban PA, Munyani A, Beachum J: Determination of selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and erythrocytes. Clin Chem 1982; 28:311–316

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Johnson-Down L, Saudny-Unterberger H, Gray-Donald K: Food habits of Canadians: lutein and lycopene intake in the Canadian population. J Am Diet Assoc 2002; 102:988–991

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Mackinnon ES, Rao AV, Rao LG: Lycopene intake by Canadian women is variable, similar among different ages, but greater than that reported for women in other countries. J Med Food 2009; 12:829–835

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Ford ES: Variations in serum carotenoid concentrations among United States adults by ethnicity and sex. Ethn Dis 2000; 10:208–217

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Stahl W, Sies H: Lycopene: a biologically important carotenoid for humans? Arch Biochem Biophys 1996; 336:1–9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Rock CL, Swendseid ME, Jacob RA, McKee RW: Plasma Carotenoid Levels in Human Subjects Fed a Low Carotenoid Diet. J. Nutr. 1992; 122:96–100

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Tyssandier V, Feillet-Coudray C, Caris-Veyrat C, Guilland J-C, Coudray C, Bureau S, Reich M, Amiot-Carlin M-J, Bouteloup-Demange C, Boirie Y, Borel P: Effect of Tomato Product Consumption on the Plasma Status of Antioxidant Microconstituents and on the Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 2004; 23:148–156

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Stahl W, Junghans A, de Boer B, Driomina ES, Briviba K, Sies H: Carotenoid mixtures protect multilamellar liposomes against oxidative damage: synergistic effects of lycopene and lutein. FEBS Lett 1998; 427:305–308

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Burri BJ, Chapman MH, Neidlinger TR, Seo JS, Ishida BK: Tangerine tomatoes increase total and tetra-cis-lycopene isomer concentrations more than red tomatoes in healthy adult humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2008:1–16

  39. Brown JP, Josse RG: 2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada. CMAJ 2002; 167:S1–S34

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J: Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 2007; 39:44–84

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Trevisan M, Browne R, Ram M, Muti P, Freudenheim J, Carosella AM, Armstrong D: Correlates of markers of oxidative status in the general population. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 154:348–356

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. G. Rao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mackinnon, E.S., venket Rao, A. & Rao, L.G. Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging 15, 133–138 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-011-0026-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-011-0026-4

Key words

Navigation