To validate muscle endurance estimation and to examine relationships with dependency and inflammation in elderly persons.
Cross sectional validation and explorative study.
Hospitalized geriatric patients and community-dwelling controls.
91 elderly patients (aged 83±5 years), 100 elderly controls (aged 74±5 years) and 100 young controls (aged 23±3 years).
Grip strength (GS) was recorded continuously during sustained maximal contraction until exhaustion. Fatigue resistance (FR) was expressed as the time during which GS drops to 50% of its maximum. Grip work (GW) was estimated as GW=GS*0.75*FR, and compared to the measured GW. In the elderly participants, relationships (controlling for age and physical activity) of GS, FR, GW and GW corrected for body weight (GW/BW) with dependency (Katz-scale) and inflammation (circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha) were analyzed.
Excellent correlation between estimated and measured GW was found (r=0.98, p<0.001). The method error coefficient of variance was 10% for all participants; 7% for all elderly and 8% for young controls. Better GS, FR, GW and GW/BW was significantly related with less dependency (all p<0.05 or p<0.01, except for FR in the male) and with lower circulating IL-6 (all p<0.05 or p<0.01, except for GS in both genders). Higher IL-6 was significantly related to worse dependency (p<0.01). No significant relationships with TNF-alpha were found.
GW estimation is a valid parameter reflecting muscle endurance in elderly persons presenting diverse clinical conditions. GW is significantly related to both dependency and circulating IL-6, and is a promising outcome parameter in comprehensive geriatric assessment.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al Snih S, Markides KS, Ray L, Ostir GV, Goodwin JS. Handgrip strength and mortality in older Mexican Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:1250–1256.
Bautmans I, Mets T. A fatigue resistance test for elderly persons based on grip strength: reliability and comparison with healthy young subjects. Aging Clin Exp Res 2005;17:217–222.
Bautmans I, Njemini R, Lambert M, Demanet C, Mets T. Circulating Acute Phase Mediators and Skeletal Muscle Performance in Hospitalized Geriatric Patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005;60:361–367.
Bautmans I, Gorus E, Njemini R, Mets T. Handgrip performance in relation to self-perceived fatigue, physical functioning and circulating IL-6 in elderly persons without inflammation. BMC Geriatr 2007; 7:5.
Bautmans I, Njemini R, Predom H, Lemper JC, Mets T. Muscle endurance in elderly nursing home residents is related to fatigue perception, mobility, and circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inter!eukin-6, and heat shock protein 70. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56:389–395.
Bautmans I, Njemini R, De Backer J, De Waele E, Mets T. Surgery-Induced Inflammation in Relation to Age, Muscle Endurance, and Self-Perceived Fatigue. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65: 266–273.
Dipietro L, Caspersen CJ, Ostfeld AM, Nadel ER. A survey for assessing physical activity among older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25:628–642.
Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, Seeman T, Tracy R, Kop WJ, Burke G, McBurnie MA. Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 55: M146–157.
Hoenig H, Rubenstein LZ. Hospital-associated deconditioning and dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:220–222.
Hortobagyi T, Mizelle C, Beam S, De Vita P. Old adults perform activities of daily living near their maximal capabilities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003;58:M453–460.
Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of Illness in the Aged. The Index of ADL: A Standardized Measure of Biological and Psychosocial Function. JAMA 1963;185:914–919.
Lauretani F, Russo CR, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Cavazzini C, Di Iorio A, Corsi AM, Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L. Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol 2003;95:1851–1860.
Mets T, Bautmans I, Njemini R, Lambert M, Demanet C. The influence of celecoxib on muscle fatigue resistance and mobility in elderly patients with inflammation. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2004;2:230–238.
Peeters P, Mets T. The 6-minute walk as an appropriate exercise test in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1996;51:M147–151.
Pbrtney L, Watkins M. Foundations of clinical research. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Health; 2000.
Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Foley D, Masaki K, Leveille S, Curb JD, White L. Midlife hand grip strength as a predictor of old age disability. Jama 1999; 281:558–560.
Rantanen T, Volpato S, Fsrrucci L, Heikkinen E, Fried LP, Guralnik JM. Handgrip strength and cause-specific and total mortality in older disabled women: exploring the mechanism. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:636–641.
Schillings ML, Hoefsloot W, Stegeman DF, Zwarts MJ. Relative contributions of central and peripheral factors to fatigue during a maximal sustained effort. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;90:552–568.
About this article
Cite this article
Bautmans, I., Onyema, O., Van Puyvelde, K. et al. Grip work estimation during sustained maximal contraction: Validity and relationship with dependency and inflammation in elderly persons. J Nutr Health Aging 15, 731–736 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-010-0317-1