A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a multi-factorial disease including cystitis, pyelonephritis, and pyelitis. After Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis is the most common UTI-associated opportunistic pathogen. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria and infection recurrence can be connected to biofilm formation by P. mirabilis. In this study, human and sheep isolates of P. mirabilis were investigated for antibiotic sensitivity using an antibiotic disk test. Co-aggregation of the tested potential probiotic bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, with the isolated pathogen was also evaluated. Then, the anti-biofilm activity of naturally derived metabolites, such as subtilin and subtilosin, in the bacilli-free supernatants was assessed against biofilms of P. mirabilis isolates. The isolated pathogens were sensitive to 30 μg of amikacin and 5 μg of ciprofloxacin but resistant to other tested antibiotics. After 24 h, auto-aggregation of B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895 was at 89.5% and higher than auto-aggregation of B. subtilis KATMIRA1933 (59.5%). B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895 strongly co-aggregated with P. mirabilis isolates from human UTIs. Cell-free supernatants of B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and B. subtilis KATMIRA1933 showed higher antimicrobial activity against biofilms of P. mirabilis isolated from humans as compared with biofilms of sheep isolates. According to our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the anti-biofilm activity of probiotic spore-forming bacilli against clinical and animal UTI isolates of P. mirabilis. Further studies are recommended to investigate the anti-biofilm activity and the mode of action for the antimicrobial substances produced by these bacilli, subtilosin and subtilin.
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MLC was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Project Number 075-15-2019-1880).
The samples were collected, processed, and stored, and associated data were analyzed according to the Ethical Guidelines for the use of animals in research (University of Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq). Ethical approval for the collection and processing of samples of human origin was not required since this study was a community service improvement. Personal information and data were kept confidential.
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Algburi, A., Alazzawi, S.A., Al-Ezzy, A.I.A. et al. Potential Probiotics Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 Co-Aggregate with Clinical Isolates of Proteus mirabilis and Prevent Biofilm Formation. Probiotics & Antimicro. Prot. 12, 1471–1483 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09631-0
- Proteus mirabilis
- Biofilm prevention