Sugarcane Juice with Co-encapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 and Proanthocyanidin-Rich Cinnamon Extract


Bioactive compounds are sensitive to many factors, and they can alter the sensory characteristics of foods. Microencapsulation could be a tool to provide protection and allow the addition of bioactives in new matrices, such as sugarcane juice. This study focused on producing and evaluating the potential function of probiotics and proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (PRCE), both in free and encapsulated forms when added to sugarcane juice. The pure sugarcane juice treatment T1 was compared with other sugarcane juices to which bioactive compounds had been added; T2, a non-encapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BLC1); T3, a non-encapsulated BLC1 and PRCE; T4, BLC1 microcapsules; and T5, with BLC1 and PRCE microcapsules. The samples were morphologically, physicochemically, rheologically, and sensorially characterized. Samples were also evaluated regarding the viability of BLC1 during the juice’s storage at 4 °C. It was possible to produce probiotic sugarcane juice with non-encapsulated BLC1, but not with the addition of free PRCE, which in its free form reduced the viability of this microorganism to < 1 log CFU/mL after 7 days. The microcapsules were effective to protect BLC1 during juice storage and to maintain high contents of phenolic and proanthocyanidin compounds, although the products containing these had their viscosity altered and were less accepted than either the control or those with non-encapsulated BLC1.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    Arvanitoyannis IS, Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou MV (2005) Functional foods: a survey of health claims, pros and cons, and current legislation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45:385–404

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Quintin D, Garcia-Gomez P, Ayuso M, Sanmartin AM (2018) Active biocompounds to improve food nutritional value. Trends Food Sci Technol 84:19–21

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ayyash M, Liu S, Al Mheiri A, Aldhaheri M, Raeisi B, Al-Nabulsi A, Osaili T, Olaimat A (2019) In vitro investigation of health-promoting benefits of fermented camel sausage by novel probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum: a comparative study with beef sausages. Lebensm Wiss Technol 99:346–354

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Cheikhyoussef A, Pogori N, Chen H, Tian F, Chen W, Tang J, Zhanga H (2009) Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Bifidobacterium infantis BCRC 14602. Food Control 20:553–559

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Aizawa E, Tsuji H, Asahara T, Takahashi T, Teraishi T, Yoshida S, Ota M, Koga N, Hattori K, Kunugi H (2016) Possible association of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut microbiota of patients with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord 202:254–257

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Masco L, Huys G, De Brandt E, Temmerman R, Swings J (2005) Culture-dependent and culture-independent qualitative analysis of probiotic products claimed to contain bifidobacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 102:221–230

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bengmark S (1998) Immunonutrition: role of biosurfactants fiber and probiotic bacteria. Nutrition 14:585–594

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Blaut M (2002) Relationship of prebiotics and food to intestinal microflora. Eur J Nutr 41:i11–i16

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bernini LJ, Simão ANC, Alfieri DF, Lozovoy MAB, Mari NL, Souza CHB, Dichi I, Costa GN (2016) Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile and cytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial: effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome. Nutrition 32:716–719

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Song D, Ibrahim S, Hayek S (2012) Recent application of probiotics in food and agricultural science. In: Rigobelo EC (ed) Probiotics. In Tech, Manhattan, pp 1–34

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Silanikove N, Leitner G, Merin U (2015) The interrelationships between lactose intolerance and the modern dairy industry: Global perspectives in evolutional and historical backgrounds. Nutrients 7:7312–7331

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Mortazavian AM, Khosrokhvar R, Rastegar H, Mortazaei GR (2010) Effects of dry matter standardization order on biochemical and microbiological characteristics of freshly made probiotic Doogh (Iranian fermented milk drink). Ital J Food Sci 22:98–10

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Septembre-Malaterre A, Remize F, Poucheret P (2018) Fruits and vegetables, as a source of nutritional compounds and phytochemicals: changes in bioactive compounds during lactic fermentation. Food Res Int 104:86–99

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    CONAB (2017) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira de cana-de-açúcar- Safra 2017/18- Primeiro levantamento. Brasília 4:1–57

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Brochier B, Mercali GD, Marczak LDF (2016) Influence of moderate electric field on inactivation kinetics of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and on phenolic compounds of sugarcane juice treated by ohmic heating. Lebensm Wiss Technol 74:396–403

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    de Lacey ML, Pérez-Santín E, López-Caballero ME, Montero P (2014) Biotransformation and resulting biological properties of green tea polyphenols produced by probiotic bacteria. Lebensm Wiss Technol 58:633–638

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Gong L, Li Y, Zhang Y, Wang J, Sun B (2018) In vitro evaluation of the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in different whole wheats as potential prebiotics. Lebensm Wiss Technol 100:435–443

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ostroschi LC, Souza VB, Echalar-Barrientos MA, Tulini FL, Comunian TA, Thomazini M, Baliero JCC, Roudaut G, Genovese MI, Favaro-Trindade CS (2018) Production of spray-dried proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extract as a potential functional ingredient: improvement of stability, sensory aspects and technological properties. Food Hydrocoll 79:343–351

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Souza VB, Thomazini M, Barrientos MAE, Nalin CM, Ferro-Furtado MR, Genovese MI, Favaro-Trindade CS (2018) Functional properties and encapsulation of a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) by complex coacervation using gelatin and different polysaccharides. Food Hydrocoll 77:297–306

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Tulini FL, Souza VB, Echalar-Barrientos MA, Thomazini M, Pallone EMJA, Favaro-Trindade CS (2016) Development of solid lipid microparticles loaded with a proanthocyanidin-rich cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): potential for increasing antioxidant content in functional foods for diabetic population. Food Res Int 85:10–18

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Li S, Chen L, Yang T, Wu Q, Lv Z, Xie B, Sun Z (2013) Increasing antioxidant activity of procyanidin extracts from pericarp of Litchi chinensis processing waste by two probiotic bacteria bioconversion. J Agric Food Chem 61:2506–2512

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Favaro-Trindade CS, Pinho SC, Rocha GA (2008) Revisão: Microencapsulação de ingredientes alimentícios. Braz J Food Technol 11:103–111

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Chai J, Jiang P, Wang P, Jiang Y, Li D, Bao W, Liu B, Liu B, Zhao L, Norde W, Yuan Q, Ren F, Li Y (2018) The intelligent delivery systems for bioactive compounds in foods: physicochemical and physiological conditions, absorption mechanisms, obstacles and responsive strategies. Trends Food Sci Technol 78:144–154

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Matos-Jr FE, Silva MP, Kasemodel MGC, Santos TT, Burns P, Reinheimer J, Vinderola G, Favaro-Trindade CS (2019) Evaluation of the viability and the preservation of the functionality of microencapsulated Lactobacillus paracasei BGP1 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 in lipid particles coated by polymer electrostatic interaction. J Funct Foods 54:98–108

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Singh ON, Burgess DJ (1989) Characterization of albumin-alginic acid complex coacervation. J Pharm Pharmacol 41:670–673

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Silva MP, Tulini FL, Matos-Jr FE, Oliveira MG, Thomazini M, Fávaro-Trindade CS (2018) Application of spray chilling and electrostatic interaction to produce lipid microparticles loaded with probiotics as an alternative to improve resistance under stress conditions. Food Hydrocoll 83:109–117

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Silva MP, Tulini FL, Marinho JFU, Mazzocato MC, Martinis ECP, Luccas V, Favaro-Trindade CS (2017) Semisweet chocolate as a vehicle for the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA3 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1: evaluation of chocolate stability and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Lebensm Wiss Technol 75:640–647

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Association of Official Analytical chemists – AOAC (2010) Official Methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th edn. AOAC international, Gaithersburg

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Comunian TA, Chaves IE, Thomazini M, Moraes ICF, Ferro-Furtado R, Castro IA, Favaro-Trindade CS (2017) Development of functional yogurt containing free and encapsulated echium oil, phytosterol and sinapic acid. Food Chem 237:948–956

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:178–184

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Payne MJ, Hurst WJ, Stuart DA, Ou B, Fan E, Ji H, Kou Y (2010) Determination of total procyanidins in selected chocolate and confectionery products using DMAC. J AOAC Int 93:89–96

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Astolfi-Filho Z, Telis VRN, Oliveira EB, Coimbra JSR, Telis-Romero J (2011) Rheology and fluid dynamics properties of sugarcane juice. Biochem Eng J 53:260–265

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Rao MA (1999) Rheology of fluids and semisolids: principles and applications. An Publishers, Inc., Gaitherburg

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Meilgaard M, Civille GV, Carr BT (1999) Sensory evaluation techniques. CRC, Boca Raton, p 390

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Comunian TA, Thomazini M, Alves AJG, Matos FE Jr, Balieiro JCC, Fávaro-Trindade CS (2013) Microencapsulation of ascorbic acid by complex coacervation: protection and controlled release. Food Res Int 52:373–379

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Souza CJF, Comunian TA, Kasemodel MGC, Favaro-Trindade CS (2018) Microencapsulation of lactase by W/O/W emulsion followed by complex coacervation: effects of enzyme source, addition of potassium and core to shell ratio on encapsulation efficiency, stability and kinetics of release. Food Res Int 121:754–764

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Nualkaekul S, Salmeron I, Charalampopoulos D (2011) Investigation of the factors influencing the survival of Bifidobacterium longum in model acidic solutions and fruit juices. Food Chem 129:1037–1044

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Costa GM, Silva JVC, Mingotti JD, Barão CE, Klososki SJ, Pimentel TC (2017) Effect of ascorbic acid or oligofructose supplementation on L. paracasei viability, physicochemical characteristics and acceptance of probiotic orange juice. Lebensm Wiss Technol 75:195–201

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Qudsieh HY, Yusof S, Osman A, Rahman RA (2002) Effect of maturity on chlorophyll, tannin, color, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of sugarcane juice (Saccharum officinarum Var. Yellow Cane). J Agric Food Chem 50:1615–1618

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Yusof S, Shian LS, Osman A (2000) Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage. Food Chem 68:395–401

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Filho ALS, Freitas HV, Rodrigues S, Abreu VKG, Lemos TO, Gomes WF, Narain N, Pereira ALF (2019) Production and stability of probiotic cocoa juice with sucralose as sugar substitute during refrigerated storage. Lebensm Wiss Technol 99:371–378

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Lee J (2010) Degradation kinetics of grape skin and seed proanthocyanidins in a model wine system. Food Chem 123:51–56

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Kwaw E, Ma Y, Tchabo W, Apaliya MT, Xiao L, Li X, Hu M (2017) Effect of fermentation parameters and their optimization on the phytochemical properties of lactic-acid-fermented mulberry juice. J Food Meas Charact 11:1462–1473

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Nematollahi A, Sohrabvandi S, Mortazavian AM, Jazaeri S (2016) Viability of probiotic bacteria and some chemical and sensory characteristics in cornelian cherry juice during cold storage. Electron J Biotechnol 21:49–53

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Duarte-Almeida JMD, Novoa AV, Linares AF, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI (2006) Antioxidant activity of phenolics compounds from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice. Plant Food Hum Nutr 61:187–192

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Ogando FIB, Aguiar CL, Viotto JVN, Heredia FJ, Hernanz D (2019) Removal of phenolic, turbidity and color in sugarcane juice by electrocoagulation as a sulfur-free process. Food Res Int 122:643–652

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Nualkaekul S, Cook MT, Khutoryanskiy VV, Charalampopoulos D (2013) Influence of encapsulation and coating materials on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium longum in fruit juices. Food Res Int 53:304–311

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Vodnar DC, Socaciu C (2014) Selenium enriched green tea increase stability of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum in chitosan coated alginate microcapsules during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal and refrigerated conditions. Lebensm Wiss Technol 57:406–411

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Tripathi MK, Giri SK (2014) Probiotic functional foods: Survival of probiotics during processing and storage. J Funct Foods 9:225–241

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    RDC Brazil (2001) Technical regulation on microbiological standards for food. RDC Resolution No.12

  51. 51.

    Silva CO, Gallo FA, Bomdespacho LQ, Kushida MM, Petrus RR (2016) Sugarcane juice processing: microbiological monitoring. J Food Process Technol 7:607

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Rao MA, Cooley HJ, Vitali AA (1984) Flow properties of concentrated juices at low temperatures. Food Technol 38:113–119

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Saravacos GD (1970) Effect of temperature on viscosity of fruit juices and purees. J Food Sci 35:122–125

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Costa MP, Frasao BS, Silva ACO, Freitas MQ, Franco RM, Conte-Junior CA (2015) Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic: influence on color, apparent viscosity, and texture of goat milk yogurts. J Dairy Sci 98:5995–6003

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Charlton AJ, Baxter NJ, Khan ML, Moir AJG, Haslam E, Davies AP, Williamson MP (2002) Polyphenol/peptide binding and precipitation. J Agric Food Chem 50:1593–1601

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Prigent SVE, Gruppen H, Visser AJWG, Van Koningsveld GA, De Jong GAH, Voragen AGJ (2003) Effects of non-covalent interactions with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid) on the heat denaturation and solubility of globular proteins. J Agric Food Chem 51:5088–5095

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


Sacco do Brasil (Campinas/SP, Brazil) for the donation of probiotic. Cargill Agrícola S/A (Itumbiara/Goiás, Brazil) for the donation of vegetable fat. Lacprodan 80 whey protein concentrate (WPC) and gum Arabic (GA) were donated by Arla Foods Ingredients (São Paulo/SP, Brazil) and Nexira (São Paulo/SP, Brazil), respectively.


The authors thank the São Paulo Research Foundation—Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for the scholarship awarded to A. T. Holkem (Process no. 15/19375-0) and the project financial support provided (Process no. 13/24874-0).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Carmen S. Favaro-Trindade.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Holkem, A.T., Neto, E.J.S., Nakayama, M. et al. Sugarcane Juice with Co-encapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 and Proanthocyanidin-Rich Cinnamon Extract. Probiotics & Antimicro. Prot. 12, 1179–1192 (2020).

Download citation


  • Microencapsulation
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Polyphenols
  • Complex coacervation
  • Viability
  • Sensorial acceptance