The Effects of Probiotic Honey Consumption on Metabolic Status in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

  • Navid Mazruei Arani
  • Zahra Emam-Djomeh
  • Hamid Tavakolipour
  • Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori
  • Alireza Soleimani
  • Zatollah AsemiEmail author


To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first evaluating the effects of probiotic honey intake on glycemic control, lipid profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic honey intake on metabolic status in patients with DN. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 60 patients with DN. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 25 g/day probiotic honey containing a viable and heat-resistant probiotic Bacillus coagulans T11 (IBRC-M10791) (108 CFU/g) or 25 g/day control honey (n = 30 each group) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and 12 weeks after supplementation to quantify glycemic status, lipid concentrations, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress. After 12 weeks of intervention, patients who received probiotic honey compared with the control honey had significantly decreased serum insulin levels (− 1.2 ± 1.8 vs. − 0.1 ± 1.3 μIU/mL, P = 0.004) and homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (− 0.5 ± 0.6 vs. 0.003 ± 0.4, P = 0.002) and significantly improved quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+ 0.005 ± 0.009 vs. − 0.0007 ± 0.005, P = 0.004). Additionally, compared with the control honey, probiotic honey intake has resulted in a significant reduction in total-/HDL-cholesterol (− 0.2 ± 0.5 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.1, P = 0.04). Probiotic honey intake significantly reduced serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (− 1.9 ± 2.4 vs. − 0.2 ± 2.7 mg/L, P = 0.01) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (− 0.1 ± 0.6 vs. + 0.6 ± 1.0 μmol/L, P = 0.002) compared with the control honey. Probiotic honey intake had no significant effects on other metabolic profiles compared with the control honey. Overall, findings from the current study demonstrated that probiotic honey consumption for 12 weeks among DN patients had beneficial effects on insulin metabolism, total-/HDL-cholesterol, serum hs-CRP, and plasma MDA levels, but did not affect other metabolic profiles. IRCT201705035623N115.


Probiotic Honey Supplementation Diabetic nephropathy Metabolic status 



The present study was supported by a grant from the Vice-chancellor for Research, KAUMS, and Iran. Special thanks to Gaz Sekkeh Company for providing probiotic and control honey.

Author’s Contributions

NM-A and ZA contributed in conception, data collection, and manuscript drafting. ZE-D, HT, RS-C, and AS contributed in conception, data collection, and manuscript drafting. All authors read and approved the final version of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This investigation was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The informed written consent was taken from all enrolled patients, with ethical clearance for the study obtained from the ethics committee of Kashan University of Medical Sciences (KAUMS).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Navid Mazruei Arani
    • 1
  • Zahra Emam-Djomeh
    • 2
  • Hamid Tavakolipour
    • 3
  • Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori
    • 4
  • Alireza Soleimani
    • 5
  • Zatollah Asemi
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, North Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Technology and Engineering Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar BranchIslamic Azad UniversitySabzevarIran
  4. 4.Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic DiseasesKashan University of Medical SciencesKashanIran
  5. 5.Department of Internal MedicineKashan University of Medical SciencesKashanIran

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