Probiotics L. acidophilus and B. clausii Modulate Gut Microbiota in Th1- and Th2-Biased Mice to Ameliorate Salmonella Typhimurium-Induced Diarrhea

Abstract

Gut microbiota play important role in maintaining health. Probiotics are believed to augment it further. We aimed at comparing effects of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Bacillus clausii (BC) (a) on the gut microbiota abundance and diversity and (b) their contributions to control intestinal dysbiosis and inflammation in Th1- and Th2-biased mice following Salmonella infection. We report how could gut microbiota and the differential immune bias (Th1 or Th2) of the host regulate host responses when challenged with Salmonella typhimurium in the presence and absence of either of the probiotics. LA was found to be effective in ameliorating the microbial dysbiosis and inflammation caused by Salmonella infection, in Th1 (C57BL/6) and Th2 (BALB/c)-biased mouse. BC was able to ameliorate Salmonella-induced dysbiosis and inflammation in Th2 but not in Th1-biased mouse. These results may support probiotics LA as a treatment option in the case of Salmonella infection.

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Acknowledgments

We acknowledge and we are thankful to Mr. Madan Mohan Mallick and Mr. Susanta Kumar Swain, the technicians of Dr. Shantibhusan Senapati’s laboratory for making the histological slides. We deeply appreciate Bionivid, Xcelris Lab and SciGenome for timely execution of 16S rRNA sequencing. We acknowledge Mr. Sibabrata Sarangi, attendant, NISER animal house for taking care of the animals during the experiments. We heartily appreciate Mr. David Alexander Datzkiw for proofreading this manuscript.

Data Submission

The transcriptomics data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO series accession number GSE98353 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?token=excdimugvlubnkj&acc=GSE98353).

The 16S rDNA sequencing data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive and are accessible through Bio project number PRJNA388784 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/388784) and PRJNA392028 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA392028).

Funding

This study is provided by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India for partially funding this project through extramural support. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication

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Contributions

P.A. and B.P. planned the study and designed the experiments. B.P. executed most of the experiments and D.G., A.K.N, A.B. assisted in the experiments with supervision from P.A., S.S., S.C., B.P., and D.G. analyzed the histopathological data. P.A., B.P., and D.G. analyzed the microarray data. S.T., B.P., P.A., and A.B. analyzed the microbiome data. BP prepared the first draft of the manuscript. P.A. overall supervised the work and finalized the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Palok Aich.

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Pradhan, B., Guha, D., Naik, A.K. et al. Probiotics L. acidophilus and B. clausii Modulate Gut Microbiota in Th1- and Th2-Biased Mice to Ameliorate Salmonella Typhimurium-Induced Diarrhea. Probiotics & Antimicro. Prot. 11, 887–904 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12602-018-9436-5

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Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Microbiota
  • Dysbiosis
  • Inflammation
  • Lactobacillus
  • Salmonella