Lack of Heterogeneity in Bacteriocin Production Across a Selection of Commercial Probiotic Products
- 238 Downloads
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. Bacteriocin production has often been mooted as a desirable probiotic trait and, in specific cases, has been shown to promote probiotic survival within the gastrointestinal tract, contribute to the control of pathogens and even influence host gene expression in the gut. However, it is not clear what proportion of probiotic strains routinely found in commercial products produces bacteriocins, and additionally, it is not known which bacteriocins are produced most frequently. To address this, we conducted a culture-based assessment of the bacteriocinogenic ability of bacterial strains found in a variety of commercially available probiotic products. We detected eight bacteriocin-producing isolates from 16 tested products. Interestingly, in all cases, the isolates were Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the bacteriocin produced was identified as the narrow spectrum class II bacteriocin, lactacin B. The apparent absence of other bacteriocin-producing strains from across these products suggests a lack of heterogeneity in bacteriocin production within probiotic products and suggests that bacteriocin production is not being optimally harnessed as a probiotic trait.
KeywordsProbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Bacteriocin Lactacin B
This work was funded by a SFI award “Obesibiotics” (11/P1/1137) to PDC. The authors thank Brian Healy for technical assistance with PFGE and Clare Piper and Angele Lecouillard for assistance with screening.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
No ethical approval was required for this study. All products were commercially available.
- 6.Tuomola E et al (2001) Quality assurance criteria for probiotic bacteria. Am J Clin Nutr 73(2):393s–398sGoogle Scholar
- 7.Selle K, Klaenhammer TR (2013) Genomic and phenotypic evidence for probiotic influences of Lactobacillus gasseri on human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev 37(6):915–935Google Scholar
- 9.Nes IF, Yoon S, Diep DB (2007) Ribosomally synthesiszed antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) in lactic acid bacteria: a review. Food Sci Biotechnol 16(5):675Google Scholar
- 14.Walsh MC et al (2008) Predominance of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus salivarius component of a five-strain probiotic in the porcine ileum and effects on host immune phenotype. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 64(2):317–327Google Scholar
- 15.Corr SC et al (2007) Bacteriocin production as a mechanism for the antiinfective activity of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(18):7617–7621Google Scholar
- 16.van Hemert S et al (2010) Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. BMC Microbiol 10(1):1Google Scholar
- 18.Murphy EF et al (2013) Divergent metabolic outcomes arising from targeted manipulation of the gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity. Gut 62:220–226Google Scholar
- 20.Sanders M, Klaenhammer T (2001) Invited review: the scientific basis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM functionality as a probiotic. J Dairy Sci 84(2):319–331Google Scholar
- 21.Tabasco R et al (2009) Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 increases lactacin B production when it senses live target bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 132(2–3):109–116Google Scholar
- 22.Burton JP et al (2006) Safety assessment of the oral cavity probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(4):3050–3053Google Scholar
- 23.Hyink O et al (2007) Salivaricin A2 and the novel lantibiotic salivaricin B are encoded at adjacent loci on a 190-kilobase transmissible megaplasmid in the oral probiotic strain Streptococcus salivarius K12. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(4):1107–1113Google Scholar
- 24.Weese JS, Martin H (2011) Assessment of commercial probiotic bacterial contents and label accuracy. Can Vet J 52(1):43Google Scholar
- 25.Lewis ZT et al (2015) Validating bifidobacterial species and subspecies identity in commercial probiotic products. Pediatr ResGoogle Scholar
- 26.Chapman C, Gibson GR, Rowland I (2012) In vitro evaluation of single- and multi-strain probiotics: inter-species inhibition between probiotic strains, and inhibition of pathogens. Anaerobe 18(4):405–413Google Scholar
- 27.Lewus CB, Kaiser A, Montville TJ (1991) Inhibition of food-borne bacterial pathogens by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat. Appl Environ Microbiol 57(6):1683–1688Google Scholar
- 28.Ryan MP et al (1996) An application in cheddar cheese manufacture for a strain of Lactococcus lactis producing a novel broadspectrum bacteriocin, lacticin 3147. Appl Environ Microbiol 62(2):612–619Google Scholar
- 31.Simpson P et al (2002) Genomic diversity within the genus Pediococcus as revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol 68(2):765–771Google Scholar
- 33.Casey P et al (2004) Isolation and characterization of anti-Salmonella lactic acid bacteria from the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Lett Appl Microbiol 39(5):431–438Google Scholar
- 35.Bull M et al (2013) The life history of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a probiotic: a tale of revisionary taxonomy, misidentification and commercial success. FEMS Microbiol Lett 349(2):77–87Google Scholar
- 37.Barefoot SF, Klaenhammer TR (1983) Detection and activity of lactacin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol 45(6):1808–1815Google Scholar
- 38.Saleh FA, El-Sayed EM (2004) Isolation and characterization of bacteriocins produced by Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 and Bifidobacterium longum BB-46. 9th Egyptian conference for dairy science and technology, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar