Skip to main content

Axone, an Ethnic Probiotic Containing Food, Reduces Age of Sexual Maturity and Increases Poultry Production


Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5 % (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    Columbian encyclopedia (2001) Soybean. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th edition, Accessed 23 August 2012

  2. 2.

    Singh BR, Ngullie E, Bhatt BP (2009) Effect of axone (fermented soybean) feeding on growth performance, intestinal physiology and humoral response of suckling and grower pigs in Nagaland state of North Eastern Hill Region. Proceedings of 13th biennial animal nutrition conference December 17–19th 2009: Diversification of animal nutrition research in changing scenario, 2nd Vol., eds, M Chandrashekharaiah, A Thulasi, R Umaya, Suganthi and DT pal (Published by KT Sampath, Chairman Organizing Committee and President ANSI, Bangalore) NFRS-13, 2009, 122

  3. 3.

    Tamang JP, Chettri R, Sharma RM (2009) Indigenous knowledge of Northeast women on production of ethnic fermented soybean foods. Indian J Trad Knowl 8:122–126

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Dolgin E (2012) Real males eat yogurt. Sci Am 26:17

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kim JY, Choi YO, Ji GE (2008) Effect of oral probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis AD011 and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031) administration on ovalbumin-induced food allergy in mouse model. J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:1393–1400

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Resta SC (2009) Effects of probiotics and commensals on intestinal epithelial physiology: implications for nutrient handling. J Physiol 587(4169–4174):4169

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Singh BR (2013) Axone, a probiotic for pigs promotes growth rate in grower and suckling piglets of large black breed. Noto-are-Medicine. Noto-11591615 published on 2013-04-22. Assessed on 5 April 2013

  8. 8.

    Niranjan M, Sharma RP, Rajkumar U, Reddy BLN, Chatterjee RN, Bhattacharya TK (2008) Comparative evaluation of production performance in improved chicken varieties for backyard farming. Int J Poul Sci 7:1128–1131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Holt JG, Sneath PHA, Mair MS, Sharpee ME (1986) Bergey,s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, 428 east Preston Street, Baltimore, MD 211202, USA

  10. 10.

    Singh BR (2009) Labtop for microbiology laboratory, ISBN 978-3-8383-1574-40. Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Baba IK, Singh Y, Thirumurugan P (2014) Performance of vanaraja birds under different climatic parameters. J World’s Poult Res 4:01–04

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Hung ATY, Su TM, Liao CW, Lu JJ (2008) Effect of probiotic combination fermented soybean meal on growth performance, lipid metabolism and immunological response of growing-finishing pigs. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 3:431–436

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Singh BR, Singh RK, Singh V (2014) Microbial quality and safety of axone-akhuni, a fermented soybean food of Nagaland. Noto-are 15185525: Medicine. 2014-03-14.

  14. 14.

    Matsumoto M, Kurihar S, Kibe R, Ashida H, Benno Y (2011) Longevity in mice is promoted by probiotic-induced suppression of colonic senescence dependent on up-regulation of gut bacterial polyamine production. PLoS ONE 6:e23652

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are thankful to Joint Director, ICAR RC for NEHR, Jharnapani, Nagaland, Director ICAR RC for NEHR, Umiam, Barapani, Meghalaya, and Director NRC on Mithun Jharnapani, Nagland for permitting to study, financial support and laboratory facilities. Dr. KC Das, In-charge Mithun Nutrition, NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland helped for proximate analysis of Axone samples. Authors are thankful to MS. Sumedha Gandharava, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, USA, for reviewing the English of the manuscript.

Conflict of interests

The authors, Dr. BR Singh and Dr. RK Singh have no conflict of Interests. The research work was carried out with Institutional funding.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bhoj Raj Singh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, B.R., Singh, R.K. Axone, an Ethnic Probiotic Containing Food, Reduces Age of Sexual Maturity and Increases Poultry Production. Probiotics & Antimicro. Prot. 6, 88–94 (2014).

Download citation


  • Axone
  • Synbiotic
  • Vanaraja
  • ASM
  • Growth rate
  • Egg weight
  • Bacillus coagulans
  • Bacillus subtilis