Ocean Science Journal

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 537–547 | Cite as

Environmental gradients regulate the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton assemblages in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

  • Thanh-Luu PhamEmail author


This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical variables in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (CGMBR), Vietnam, based on field measurement conducted monthly at nine stations during February 2009 to January 2010. Species diversity, richness and phytoplankton abundance were calculated. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental factors and phytoplankton community. A total of 126 species were recorded with a clear dominance of Bacillariophyceae, which formed about 76.4% of the total phytoplankton counts with an annual average of 44.900 cells/L. Other algal classes like Dinophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chrysophyceae sustained low counts, forming collectively about 14% of the total abundance of phytoplankton. Although Chaetoceros and Coscinodiscus were the most dominant genera, Schroederella and Skeletonema showed high abundance during the studied period. Among the nine environmental parameters tested in this study, salinity, nitrate and ammonium were found to be significantly different between two seasons. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between stations for the studied variables. Results of CCA indicated that phytoplankton assemblage in the CGMBR was influenced by salinity, nitrate and phosphate concentration. This is the first study simultaneously investigating the phytoplankton communities and their environment in this area and it is essential in order to set up the baseline of future studies.


phytoplankton mangrove zones diversity indices seasonal successions 


  1. APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 2670Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal A, Gopal K (2013) Biomonitoring of water and waste water. Springer India, New Delhi, 166 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aktan Y, Tüfekçi V, Tüfekçi H, Aykulu G (2005) Distribution patterns, biomass estimates and diversity of phytoplankton in Izmit Bay (Turkey). Estuar Coast Shelf S 64:372–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arumugam S, Sigamani S, Samikannu M, Perumal M (2016) Assemblages of phytoplankton diversity in different zonation of Muthupet mangroves. Reg Stud Mar Sci 3:234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barroso HDS, Becker H, Melo VMM (2016) Influence of river discharge on phytoplankton structure and nutrient concentrations in four tropical semiarid estuaries. Braz J Oceanogr 64:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boopathi T, Lee JB, Youn SH, Ki JS (2015) Temporal and spatial dynamics of phytoplankton diversity in the East China Sea near Jeju Island (Korea): a pyrosequencing-based study. Biochem Syst Ecol 63:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braak CJFT, Verdonschot PFM (1995) Canonical correspondence analysis and related multivariate methods in aquatic ecology. Aquat Sci 57:255–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brogueira MJ, Oliveira MDR, Cabeçadas G (2007) Phytoplankton community structure defined by key environmental variables in Tagus estuary, Portugal. Mar Environ Res 64:616–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bussi G, Whitehead PG, Bowes MJ, Read DS, Prudhomme C, Dadson SJ (2016) Impacts of climate change, land-use change and phosphorus reduction on phytoplankton in the River Thames (UK). Sci Total Environ 572:1507–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canini N, Metillo E, Azanza R (2013) Monsoon influenced phytoplankton community structure in a Philippine mangrove estuary. Trop Ecol 54:331–343Google Scholar
  11. Choudhury AK, Bhadury P (2015) Relationship between N:P:Si ratio and phytoplankton community composition in a tropical estuarine mangrove ecosystem. Biogeosciences Discuss 12:2307–2355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costa LS, Huszar VLM, Ovalle AR (2009) Phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical estuary: hydrological control and nutrient limitation. Estuar Coast 32:508–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davidson K, Gowen RJ, Harrison PJ, Fleming LE, Hoagland P, Moschonas G (2014) Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters. J Environ Manage 146:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edward GB, David CS (2015) Freshwater algae: identification, enumeration and use as bioindicators, 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, 296 pGoogle Scholar
  15. Fukuyo Y, Takano H, Chihara M, Matsuoka K (1990) Red tide organisms in Japan: an illustrated taxonomic guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Tokyo, 407 pGoogle Scholar
  16. Gameiro C, Zwolinski J, Brotas V (2011) Light control on phytoplankton production in a shallow and turbid estuarine system. Hydrobiologia 669:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao X, Song J (2005) Phytoplankton distributions and their relationship with the environment in the Changjiang Estuary, China. Mar Pollut Bull 50:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garnier J, Beusen A, Thieu V, Billen G, Bouwman L (2010) N:P:Si nutrient export ratios and ecological consequences in coastal seas evaluated by the ICEP approach. Global Biogeochem Cy 24:GB0A05CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Geider R, La Roche J (2002) Redfield revisited: variability of C:N:P in marine microalgae and its biochemical basis. Eur J Phycol 37:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. George B, Kumar NJI, Kumar RN (2012) Study on the influence of hydro-chemical parameters on phytoplankton distribution along Tapi estuarine area of Gulf of Khambhat, India. Egypt J Aquat Res 38:157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Godrijan J, Maric D, Tomažic I, Precali R, Pfannkuchen M (2013) Seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in the coastal waters of the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. J Sea Res 77:32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2016) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http:// Accessed 14 Dec 2016Google Scholar
  23. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EM, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harding JLW, Adolf JE, Mallonee ME, Miller WD, Gallegos CL, Perry ES, Johnson JM, Sellner KG, Paerl HW (2015) Climate effects on phytoplankton floral composition in Chesapeake Bay. Estuar Coast Shelf S 162:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heneash AMM, Tadrose HRZ, Hussein MMA, Hamdona SK, Abdel-Aziz N, Gharib SM (2015) Potential effects of abiotic factors on the abundance and distribution of the plankton in the Western Harbour, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. Oceanologia 57:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Howarth RW, Marino R (2006) Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems: evolving views over three decades. Limnol Oceanogr 51:364–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huang L, Jian W, Song X, Huang X, Liu S, Qian P, Yin K, Wu M (2004) Species diversity and distribution for phytoplankton of the Pearl River estuary during rainy and dry seasons. Mar Pollut Bull 49:588–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Iain MS, David R (2009) Plankton: a guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, 256 pGoogle Scholar
  29. Jendyk J, Hemraj DA, Brown MH, Ellis AV, Leterme SC (2014) Environmental variability and phytoplankton dynamics in a South Australian inverse estuary. Cont Shelf Res 91:134–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jiang YJ, He W, Liu WX, Qin N, Ouyang HL, Wang QM, Kong XZ, He QS, Yang C, Yang B, Xu FL (2014) The seasonal and spatial variations of phytoplankton community and their correlation with environmental factors in a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu). Ecol Indic 40:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Koening ML, Macêdo SJD (1999) Hydrology and phytoplankton community structure at Itamaracá-Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil). Braz Arch Biol Techn 42(4). doi:10.1590/S1516-89131999000400002Google Scholar
  32. Kromkamp J, Peene J, Rijswijk PV, Sandee A, Goosen N (1995) Nutrients, light and primary production by phytoplankton and microphytobenthos in the eutrophic, turbid Westerschelde estuary (The Netherlands). Hydrobiologia 311:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuenzer C, Tuan VQ (2013) Assessing the ecosystem services value of Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve: combining earth-observation-and household-survey-based analyses. Appl Geogr 45:167–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leps J, Smilauer P (2003) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 269 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li G, Lin Q, Lin J, Song X, Tan Y, Huang L (2014) Environmental gradients regulate the spatial variations of phytoplankton biomass and community structure in surface water of the Pearl River estuary. Acta Ecol Sin 34:129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lionard M, Muylaert K, Gansbeke DV, Vyverman W (2005) Influence of changes in salinity and light intensity on growth of phytoplankton communities from the Schelde river and estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands). Hydrobiologia 540:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lu Z, Gan J (2015) Controls of seasonal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Pearl River Estuary. Deep-Sea Res Pt II 117:86–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lund JWG, Kipling C, Cren EDL (1958) The inverted microscope method of estimating algal numbers and the statistical basis of estimations by counting. Hydrobiologia 11:143–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ly J, Philippart CJM, Kromkamp JC (2014) Phosphorus limitation during a phytoplankton spring bloom in the western Dutch Wadden Sea. J Sea Res 88:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nassar MZ, El-Din NGS, Gharib SM (2015) Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt. Environ Monit Assess 187:648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nche-Fambo FA, Scharler UM, Tirok K (2015) Resilience of estuarine phytoplankton and their temporal variability along salinity gradients during drought and hypersalinity. Estuar Coast Shelf S 158:40–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ngo XQ, Vanreusel A, Thanh NV, Smol N (2007) Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes. Ocean Sci J 42:135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nursuhayati AS, Yusoff FM, Shariff M (2013) Spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton in Perak Estuary, Malaysia, during monsoon season. J Fish Aquat Sci 4:480–493Google Scholar
  44. Perumal NV, Rajkumar M, Perumal P, Rajasekar KT (2009) Seasonal variations of plankton diversity in the Kaduviyar estuary, Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India. J Environ Biol 30:1035–1046Google Scholar
  45. Rajkumar M, Perumal P, Prabu VA, Perumal NV, Rajasekar KT (2009) Phytoplankton diversity in pichavaram mangrove waters from south-east coast of India. J Environ Biol 30:489–498Google Scholar
  46. Ralston DK, Keafer BA, Brosnahan ML, Anderson DM (2014) Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree day approach. Limnol Oceanogr 59:1112–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Redfield AC (1960) The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. Sci Prog 11:150–170Google Scholar
  48. Reynolds CS (2006) Ecology of phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 535 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Satpathy KK, Mohanty AK, Natesan U, Prasad MV, Sarkar SK (2010) Seasonal variation in physicochemical properties of coastal waters of Kalpakkam, east coast of India with special emphasis on nutrients. Environ Monit Assess 164:153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schwarzer K, Nguyen CT, Ricklefs K (2016) Sediment re-deposition in the mangrove environment of Can Gio, Saigon River estuary (Vietnam). J Coastal Res Special Issue 75:138–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Spilling K, Ylöstalo P, Simis S, Seppälä J (2015) Interaction effects of light, temperature and nutrient limitations (N, P and Si) on growth, stoichiometry and photosynthetic parameters of the coldwater diatom chaetoceros wighamii. PLoS One 10:e0126308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tett P, Droop MR, Heaney SI (1985) The Redfield ratio and phytoplankton growth rate. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 65:487–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thangaradjou T, Sethubathi GV, Raja S, Poornima D, Shanthi R, Balasubramanian T, Babu KN, Shukla AK (2012) Influence of environmental variables on phytoplankton floristic pattern along the shallow coasts of southwest Bay of Bengal. Algal Res 1:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tomas C (1997) Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press, San Diego, 858 pGoogle Scholar
  55. Ton TP (2009) Biodiversity of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam. Hue University, 214 pGoogle Scholar
  56. Trommer G, Leynaert A, Klein C, Naegelen A, Beker B (2013) Phytoplankton phosphorus limitation in a North Atlantic coastal ecosystem not predicted by nutrient load. J Plankton Res 35:1207–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Uncles RJ, Cloern JE (1987) Dynamics of turbid coastal environments turbidity as a control on phytoplankton biomass and productivity in estuaries. Cont Shelf Res 7:1367–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Van-Loon AF, Dijksma R, Mensvoort MEF (2007) Hydrological classification in mangrove areas: a case study in Can Gio, Vietnam. Aquatic Bot 87:80–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ward BA, Dutkiewicz S, Follows MJ (2014) Modelling spatial and temporal patterns in size-structured marine plankton communities: top–down and bottom–up controls. J Plankton Res 36:31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wehr JD, Sheath RG, Kociolek JB (2003) Freshwater algae of north america: ecology and classification. Elsevier, Sandiego, 918 pGoogle Scholar
  61. Wetzel RG, Likens GE (2000) Limnological analyses. Springer, New York, 429 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour SafetyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi MinhVietnam

Personalised recommendations