Skip to main content

Life history and host plant assessment of the cacao mirid bug Helopeltis bakeri Poppius (Hemiptera: Miridae)

Abstract

Helopeltis bakeri Poppius is a major insect pest of cacao, Theobroma cacao L. in the Philippines. It is one of the four Helopeltis species endemic to the Philippines, easily recognizable for its sexual dimorphism. Up to date, no developmental biology and host plant list have been recorded for H. bakeri. Here, we report its life history, conduct surveys, and present potential host plant species. Biological characteristics of H. bakeri reared on Ipomea batatas (L.) Poir. shoots were observed in the laboratory at 27 ± 1 °C, 59 to 73% RH, and L12:D12. Five nymphal stages were recorded. Egg incubation period was 7.49 ± 0.43 days, and the duration of each of the five developmental stages was 3.11 ± 0.53, 1.51 ± 0.37, 2.07 ± 0.11, 4.40 ± 0.32 and 4.45 ± 0.17 days, respectively. Adult longevity was not significantly different between both sexes. We also provided morphological descriptions and measurements of the immature stages to aid proper nymphal identification of H. bakeri. No choice tests and field observations revealed four potential host plants, i.e., Chromolaena odorata (L.) R King & H Robinson, Cucumis sativus L., Hibiscus rosasinensis L., and Psidium guajava L., and two plants, i.e., Polyscias scutellaria (Burm. f.) Fosb. and Ipomea batatas (L.) Poir with confirmed host association. The information gathered on the life history, and host plant associations of H. bakeri would help decide the appropriate pest management strategy for controlling the population of this insect pest in the country's cacao-growing areas.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Data availability

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.

References

  • Adu-Acheampong, R., Sarfo, J. E., Appiah, E. F., Nkansah, A., Awudzi, G., Obeng, E., ... & Sem, R. (2015). Strategy for insect pest control in cocoa. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 416–423.

  • Aluja, M., & Mangan, R. L. (2008). Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host status determination: Critical conceptual, methodological, and regulatory considerations. Annual Review of Entomology, 53, 473–502.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Amalin, D. M., Averion, L., Bihis, D., Legaspi, J. C., & David, E. F. (2015). Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines. Florida Entomologist, 98(1), 354–355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amalin, D.M. & Vasquez, E.A. (1993). A handbook on Philippine sweet potato pests and their natural enemies. International Potato Center (CIP), Los Baños, Philippines. 82.

  • Babin, R. (2018). Pest management in organic cacao. CAB International.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Babin, R., Ten Hoopen, G. M., Cilas, C., Enjalric, F., Yede, G., & P., & Lumaret, J. P. . (2010). Impact of shade on the spatial distribution of Sahlbergella singularis in traditional cocoa agroforests. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 12(1), 69–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barman, A. K., Parajulee, M. N., & Carroll, S. C. (2010). Relative preference of Lygushesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) to selected host plants in the field. Insect Science, 17(6), 542–548.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brockerhoff, E. G., Suckling, D. M., Ecroyd, C. E., Wagstaff, S. J., Raabe, M. C., Dowell, R. V., & Wearing, C. H. (2011). Worldwide host plants of the highly polyphagous, invasive Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(5), 1514–1524.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cendaña, S. M., Bernardo, G. P., & Magallona, E. D. (1983). Insect pests of fruit plants in the Philippines. University of the Phillippines, Los Baños.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cini, A., Ioriatti, C., & Anfora, G. (2012). A review of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and a draft research agenda for integrated pest management. Bulletin of Insectology, 65(1), 149–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clough, Y., Faust, H., & Tscharntke, T. (2009). Cacao boom and bust: Sustainability of agroforests and opportunities for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Letters, 2(5), 197–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, S. M., Khan, Z. R., & Pickett, J. A. (2007). The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management. Annual Review of Entomology, 52.

  • Dong, J. W., Pan, H. S., Lu, Y. H., & Yang, Y. Z. (2013). Nymphal performance correlated with adult preference for flowering host plants in a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera: Miridae). Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 7(1), 83–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Entwistle, P. F. (1972). Pests of cocoa. Longman Group Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Espino, R. R. C., & Ramos, J. V. (Eds.). (2008). Cacao Technology Resource Manual (p. 70). Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.

    Google Scholar 

  • Firake, D. M., Sankarganesh, E., Yeshwanth, H. M., & Behere, G. T. (2020). Mirid bug, Helopeltis cinchonae Mann: a new pest of economically important horticultural crops in Northeast India. Phytoparasitica, 1–10.

  • Franco, K., Jauset, A., & Castañé, C. (2011). Monogamy and polygamy in two species of mirid bugs: A functional-based approach. Journal of Insect Physiology, 57(2), 307–315.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gidoin, C., Babin, R., Beilhe, L. B., Cilas, C., Ten Hoopen, G. M., & Bieng, M. A. N. (2014). Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon. PLoS one, 9(10), e109405.

  • Hanada, R. E., Pomella, A. W. V., Costa, H. S., Bezerra, J. L., Loguercio, L. L., & Pereira, J. O. (2010). Endophytic fungal diversity in Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) trees and their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of black-pod disease. Fungal Biology, 114(11–12), 901–910.

  • Hansen, A. K., & Moran, N. A. (2014). The impact of microbial symbionts on host plant utilization by herbivorous insects. Molecular Ecology, 23(6), 1473–1496.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hokkanen, H. T. (1991). Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology, 36, 119–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laigo, F. M. (1961). Sucking insect cause toxicosis in cacao coffee. Cacao Journal (philippines), 4(9), 206–207.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lavabre, E. M., Decelle, J., & Debord, P. (1962). Recherches sur les variations de populations de mirides (Capsides) en Côte d'Ivoire.

  • Lean, O. B. (1926). Observations on the life-history of Helopeltis on cotton in southern Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 16(04), 319–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, Z., Scheirs, J., & Heckel, D. G. (2010). Host plant flowering increases both adult oviposition preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore. Environmental Entomology, 39(2), 552–560.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu, Y. H., Wu, K. M., Wyckhuys, K. A. G., & Guo, Y. Y. (2009). Potential of mungbean, Vigna radiatus as a trap crop for managing Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Bt cotton. Crop Protection, 28(1), 77–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu, Y., Wu, K., Jiang, Y., Xia, B., Li, P., Feng, H., ... & Guo, Y. (2010). Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China. Science, 328(5982), 1151-1154.

  • Kalita, H., Deka, M. K., & Singh, K. (2000). Diet breadth of tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Hemiptera: Miridae). Crop Research (hisar), 19(1), 122–124.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kandibane, M. (2008). Arthropod density in a weed ecosystem maintained around a rice field of Tamil Nadu. Asian Journal of Bio Science, 3(2), 253–259.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy, G. G., & Margolies, D. C. (1985). Mobile arthropod pests: Management in diversified agroecosystems. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 31(3), 21–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, T. W. (1941). Helopeltis (Hem., Capsidae) on Cinchona. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 32(02), 103–110.

  • Knight, H. H. (1941). The plant bugs, or Miridae, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin, 22, no. 01.

  • Maharjan, R., Jung, C., & Kafle, L. (2013). Feasibility of the Trap Cropping System for the Management of Hemipteran Bugs on Mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek in Nepal. Formosan Entomologist, 33, 15–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahob, R. J., Dibog, L., Ndoumbè-Nkeng, M., Boyogueno, A. B., Toguem, Y. F., Nyassé, S., & Bilong, C. B. (2020). Field assessment of the impact of farmers’ practices and cacao growing environment on mirid abundance and their damage under unshaded conditions in the southern Cameroon. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 1–12.

  • Miller, N. C. E. (1941). Insects associated with cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Malaya. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 32(01), 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muhamad, R., Omar, D., & Karmawati, E. (2009). The effect of mating on the eggs' fertility and fecundity of Helopeltis antonii (Heteroptera: Miridae). Tropical Life Sciences Research, 20(1).

  • Pan, H., Lu, Y., Xiu, C., Geng, H., Cai, X., Sun, X., ... & Wu, K. (2015). Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug. Scientific Reports, 5, 14805.

  • Panizzi, A. R. (1997). Wild hosts of pentatomids: Ecological significance and role in their pest status on crops. Annual Review of Entomology, 42(1), 99–122.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Peña, J. E., Glenn, H., & Baranowski, R. M. (2003). Dynamics and sampling of mirids (Hemiptera: Miridae) in avocado in Florida. In Proceedings V World Avocado Congress (Actas V Congreso Mundial del Aguacate) (pp. 495–501).

  • Ploetz, R. C. (2007). Cacao diseases: Important threats to chocolate production worldwide. Phytopathology, 97(12), 1634–1639.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poppius, B. (1915). Neue orientalische Bryocorinen. Philippine Journal of Science, 10, 75–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ragumoorthi, K. N., & Arumugam, R. (1996). Control of guava tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign. (Miridae: Hemiptera) with insecticides and botanicals. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 24(1/2), 1–5.

  • Rostami, E., Madadi, H., Abbasipour, H., Allahyari, H., & Cuthbertson, A. G. S. (2017). Life table parameters of the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on different tomato cultivars. Journal of Applied Entomology, 141(1–2), 88–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roy, S., Gurusubramanian, G., & Mukhopadhyay, A. (2010). Neem-based integrated approaches for the management of tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Miridae: Heteroptera) in tea. Journal of Pest Science, 83(2), 143–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schoonhoven, L. M., Van Loon, B., van Loon, J. J., & Dicke, M. (2005). Insect-plant biology. Oxford University Press on Demand.

  • Shelton, A. M., & Badenes-Perez, F. R. (2006). Concepts and applications of trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology, 51, 285–308.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, E. S. C. (1979). Descriptions of the immature and adult stages of the cocoa mirid Helopeltis clavifer (Heteroptera: Miridae) [pests of cocoa, Papua New Guinea]. Pacific Insects, 20(4), 354–361.

    Google Scholar 

  • Srikumar, K. K., & Shivarama Bhat, P. (2013). Biology of the tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse) on Chromolaena odorata (L.) RM King & H. Rob. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 73(3), 309–314.

  • Stonedahl, G. M. (1991). The Oriental species of Helopeltis (Heteroptera: Miridae): A review of economic literature and guide to identification. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 81(04), 465–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vanhove, W., Toussaint, L. A. N. G., Kaminski, A., & Van Damme, P. (2019). Evaluation of cocoa mirid (Distantiella theobroma Dist. and Sahlbergella singularis Hagl.) control practices in Cte dIvoire. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 14(35), 2006–2016.

  • Wheeler, A. G. (2001). Biology of the plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Pests, predators, opportunists (p. 507). Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

    Google Scholar 

  • Xu, R., Zhang, Y., & Ma, W. (1994). The probing and feeding process of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes Vaporariorum Westwood. Insect Science, 1(1), 67–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Technical assistance was provided by Reynaldo Majaducon, Alfred Bongat, Niki Ciara Almirez, and Jovelyn Villadiego of the Biological Control Research Unit (BCRU), De La Salle University – Science and Technology Complex (DLSU-STC), Biñan, Laguna, Philippines. We thank Mario Navasero and Marcela Navasero of the Crop Protection Cluster, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, for their valuable suggestion on the presence of mirid bugs on polyscias. We also thank R. Avila (Ranchito Farm, Candelaria, Quezon, Ph), L. Averion (Department of Agriculture- Region IV-A - QAES, Tiaong, Quezon, Ph), and M. Mostoles (Central Bicol State University of Agriculture - CBSUA, Pili, Camarines Sur, Bicol, Philippines) for their assistance on the cacao field surveys we conducted.

Funding

The project was funded by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD)—Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, under the cacao pest management program (biological-based approaches).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

JMS, ATB, and DMA contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by JMS, LCO, BMA, ATB, and KW. JMS wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joeselle M. Serrana.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Ethics approval

Not applicable.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 5456 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Serrana, J.M., Ormenita, L.A.C., Almarinez, B.J.M. et al. Life history and host plant assessment of the cacao mirid bug Helopeltis bakeri Poppius (Hemiptera: Miridae). Phytoparasitica 50, 1–12 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-021-00957-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-021-00957-1

Keywords

  • Helopeltis bakeri Poppius
  • Cacao mirid bug
  • Life history
  • Nymphal stage
  • Host association