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The application of lettuce in the qualitative and quantitative detection of Rhizoctonia Solani AG- 1 IA toxins

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Abstract

The toxins produced by Rhizoctonia solani are important causal agents of rice sheath blight. Effective detection of such toxins could improve the determination of the virulence of this agronomically important fungal pathogen. As such, the objective of the current study was to investigate the use of a variety of plant species [annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. sativa), long leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)] for qualitative detection of R. solani crude toxins (RHCT) to replace the current rice leaf sheath based assay. This is constrained as rice plant takes long time to grow before the leaf sheath can be harvested From the initial screen, it was found that detached lettuce leaves provided the best alternative to rice material. Quantitative determination of RHCT activity by the phosphorus extravasation method was then performed on both rice (Oryza sativa L.) and lettuce. The results demonstrated that the detached lettuce leaves had the advantages of fast onset of symptoms, high sensitivity and non-perishability after inoculation. The quantity of phosphorus exosmosis observed in both lettuce leaves and rice leaf sheaths were significantly positively correlated. These data indicate that lettuce leaves can be used as a substitute material for rice leaf sheaths, with which to study the RHCT both qualitatively and quantitatively. The current study provides a new way to qualitatively and quantitatively detect RHCT.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Timothy C. Baldwin, Reader in Plant Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering in University of Wolverhampton of UK for his critical evaluation and editing of the original manuscript. This research was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFD0200400) and the National Natural Scientific fund (30660006, 31160352).

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Correspondence to C. Y. Li or G. H. Yang.

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Ren, S.F., Zhang, Z.Y., Dong, W.H. et al. The application of lettuce in the qualitative and quantitative detection of Rhizoctonia Solani AG- 1 IA toxins. Phytoparasitica 45, 583–589 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-017-0614-x

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Keywords

  • Lettuce
  • Rhizoctonia crude toxins (RHCT)
  • Qualitative detection
  • Quantitative detection