The Santhal tribe in Assam, India utilize Sesbania sesban var. bicolor, Cyperus compressus and Asparagus racemosus to treat intestinal-worm infections. This study reports the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of these plants against Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda). The test parasites were exposed to 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml concentrations of each plant extract. The paralysis and mortality time of parasites were recorded and compared with a reference anthelmintic drug, praziquantel (PZQ). The paralysed worms were processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the plant extracts exhibited significant anti-worm activity in a dose-dependent manner and the activities were better than that of PZQ. The highest efficacy was observed for S. sesban var. bicolor, where exposure to 30 mg/ml methanol extract of the leaves caused parasite mortality within 1.02 ± 0.004 h. The SEM studies revealed adverse effects on tegument in the form of depressions around the sucker and acetabulum in parasites that were exposed to S. sesban var. bicolor and C. compressus extracts. Also, the tegument appeared wrinkled in parasites that were exposed to S. sesban var. bicolor and A. racemosus extracts. Collectively, this study showed considerably high trematocidal efficacy of the methanolic leaf extract of S. sesban var. bicolor and provides scientific evidence in support of its use in traditional medicine.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Availability of data and materials
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.
All data and materials as well as software application or custom code support the published claims and comply with field standards.
Ahmed, A. H., M. Ejo, T. Feyera, D. Regassa, and B. Mummed. 2020. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Artemisia herba-alba and Punica granatum against Haemonchus contortus. Journal of Parasitology Research 2020: 4950196.
Alok, S., S. K. Jain, A. Verma, M. Kumar, A. Mahor, and M. Sabharwal. 2013. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari): A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases 3: 242–251.
Alowanou, G. G., P. A. Olounladé, G. C. Akouedegni, A. M. L. Faihun, D. O. Koudandé, and S. M. Hounzangbé-Adoté. 2019. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Bridelia ferruginea, Combretum glutinosum, and Mitragyna inermis leaf extracts on Haemonchus contortus, an abomasal nematode of small ruminants. Parasitology Research 118: 1215–1223.
Anuracpreeda, P., R. Chawengkirttikul, A. Ngamniyom, B. Panyarachun, P. Puttarak, P. Koedrith, and N. Imtaratat. 2017. The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the ethanol leaf extracts of Terminalia catappa L. on Fasciola gigantica. Parasitology 143: 1931–1942.
Bhatnagar, M., S. S. Sisodia, and R. Bhatnagar. 2005. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Withania somnifera Dunal in rats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1056: 261–278.
Challam, M., B. Roy, and V. Tandon. 2012. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Carex baccans (Cyperaceae): Ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical alterations in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 36: 81–86.
Dahanukar, S. A., R. A. Kulkarni, and N. Rege. 2000. Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 32: S81–S118.
Dalvi, S. S., P. M. Nadkarni, and K. C. Gupta. 1990. Effect of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) on gastric emptying time in normal healthy volunteers. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 36: 91–94.
Dangol, D. R., and S. B. Gurung. 1991. Ethnobotany of the Tharu tribe of Chitwan district, Nepal. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 29: 203–209.
de Oliveira, R. N., V. L. G. Rehder, A. S. S. Oliveira, I. M. Junior, J. E. de Carvalho, A. L. T. G. de Ruiz, V. L. S. Jeraldo, A. X. Linhares, and S. M. Allegretti. 2012. Schistosoma mansoni: In vitro schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC. Experimental Parasitology 132: 135–143.
Dey, P., and B. Roy. 2018. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in Raillietina echinobothrida in vitro exposed to extract of Lysimachia ramosa. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 42: 212–219.
Dubois, O., C. Allanic, C. L. Charvet, F. Guégnard, H. Février, I. Théry-Koné, J. Cortet, C. Koch, F. Bouvier, T. Fassier, D. Marcon, J.-B. Magnin-Robert, N. Peineau, E. Courtot, C. Huau, A. Meynadier, C. Gueiffier, C. Neveu, L. Boudesocque-Delaye, and G. Sallé. 2019. Lupin (Lupinus spp.) seeds exert anthelmintic activity associated with their alkaloid content. Scientific Reports 9: 9070.
Fabricant, D. S., and N. R. Farnsworth. 2001. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environmental Health Perspective 109: 69–75.
Frawley, D., and V. Lad. 2001. The Yoga of Herbs. 183–184. Wisconsin: Lotus Press, Twin Lakes.
Gautam, M., S. Diwanay, S. Gairola, Y. Shinde, P. Patki, and B. K. Patwardhan. 2004. Immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus racemosus aqueous extract in experimental system. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 91: 251–255.
Goswami, S., K. N. Mishra, R. P. Singh, P. Singh, and P. Singh. 2016. Sesbania sesban, a plant with diverse therapeutic benefits: An overview. Suresh Gyan Vihar University Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Education 1: 111–121.
Hasan, N., N. Ahmad, S. Zohrameena, M. Khalid, and J. Akhtar. 2016. Asparagus racemosus: For medicinal uses and pharmacological actions. International Journal of Advanced Research 4: 259–267.
Jamshidi-Kia, F., Z. Lorigooini, and H. Amini-Khoei. 2018. Medicinal plants: Past history and future perspective. Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology 7: 1–7.
Kamat, J. P., K. K. Boloor, T. P. A. Devasagayam, and S. R. Venkatachalam. 2000. Antioxidant properties of Asparagus racemosus against damage induced by γ-radiation in rat liver mitochondria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 71: 425–435.
Khanna, A. K., R. Chander, and N. K. Kapoor. 1991. Hypolipidaemic activity of Abana in rats. Fitoterapia 62: 271–275.
Mandal, S. C., C. K. A. Kumar, S. M. Lakshmi, S. Sinha, T. Murugesan, B. P. Saha, and M. Pal. 2000a. Antitussive effect of Asparagus racemosus root against sulphur dioxide-induced cough in mice. Fitoterapia 71: 686–689.
Mandal, S. C., A. Nandy, M. Pal, and B. P. Saha. 2000b. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root. Phytotherapy Research 14: 118–119.
Murugan, M., and N. Muniyappan. 2018. Bio-inspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sesbania sesban and their pharmacological applications. Journal of Bionanoscience 12: 211–219.
Pandhare, R. B., B. Sangameswaran, P. B. Mohite, and S. G. Khanage. 2011. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology 3: 37–43.
Pole, S. 2006. Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice. 271–272. London: Churchill Livingston.
Rajesh, K. D., V. Subramani, P. Annamalai, V. R. Nakulan, J. Narayanaperumal, P. Ponraj, and R. Durai. 2017. Gastrothylax crumenifer: Ultrastructure and histopathology study of in vitro trematodicidal action of Marattia fraxinea (Sm.). Clinical Phytoscience. 3: 3.
Rameshkumar, K. B., N. Sudheesh, V. George, and N. N. Mohanan. 2011. Volatile constituents of the roots of Cyperus compressus Linn. Journal of Essential Oil Research 23: 39–41.
Roy, B., S. Dasgupta, and V. Tandon. 2009. Ultrastructural observations on Fasciolopsis buski and its alterations caused by shoot extract of Alpinia nigra. Microscopy Research Technique 72: 61–66.
Roy, B., and V. Tandon. 1991. Usefulness of tetramethylsilane in the preparation of helminth parasites for scanning electron microscopy. Rivista di parassitologia 8: 207–215.
Sambodo, P., J. Prastowo, K. Kurniasih, and S. Indarjulianto. 2018. In vitro potential anthelmintic activity of Biophytum petersianum on Haemonchus contortus. Veterinary World 11: 1–4.
Shah, U., R. Shah, S. Acharya, and N. Acharya. 2013. Novel anticancer agents from plant sources. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 11: 16–23.
Simon, D., and D. Chopra. 2000. The Chopra Center Herbal Handbook. 73–75. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Solowey, E., M. Lichtenstein, S. Sallon, H. Paavilainen, E. Solowey, and H. Lorberboum-Galski. 2014. Evaluating medicinal plants for anticancer activity. The Scientific World Journal. 2014: 721402.
Soren, A. D., A. K. Yadav, and E.D. Dhar. 2019. Toxological evaluation of Cyperus compressus Linn., a traditionally used anthelmintic plant in India. Advances in Traditional Medicine 30:367–372.
Temjenmongla, T., and A. K. Yadav. 2005. Anticestodal efficacy of folklore medicinal plants of Naga tribes in North-East India. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2: 129–133.
Usman, M. R. M., S. B. Patil, S. S. Patil, and R. S. Patil. 2013. Sesbania sesban Linn.: An overview. International Journal of Pharmacy & Life sciences 4: 2644–2648.
Veeresham, C. 2012. Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research 3: 200–201.
Venkatesan, N., V. Thiyagarajan, S. Narayanan, A. Arul, S. Raja, S. G. V. Kumar, T. Rajarajan, and J. B. Perianayagam. 2005. Anti-diarrhoeal potential of Asparagus racemosus wild root extracts in laboratory animals. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences 8: 39–45.
Yadav, A. K., V. Tandon, and H. S. P. Rao. 1992. In vitro anthelmintic activity of root-tuber’s extract of Flemingia vestita against Ascaris suum. Fitoterapia 63: 395–398.
Yadav, A. K., and V. Tangpu. 2008. Anticestodal activity of Adhatoda vasica extract against Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119: 322–324.
Yadav, A.K., and Temjenmongla. 2012. In vivo anthelmintic activity of Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., a traditionally used taenicidal plant in Northeast India. Parasitology Research 111: 1841–1846.
Zenebe, S., T. Feyera, and S. Assefa. 2017. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus. Biomed Research International 2017: 1905987.
The authors thank Dr. P.B. Gurung, plant taxonomist from the Department of Botany, NEHU for the identification of the plant materials. SEM study was undertaken at AIIMS, New Delhi.
No funding was received for this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Consent to participate
Consent for publication
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Soren, A.D., Yadav, A.K. In Vitro Anthelmintic Efficacy of Sesbania sesban var. bicolor, Cyperus compressus and Asparagus racemosus Against Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda). Proc Zool Soc 74, 262–267 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-021-00370-w
- Anthelmintic efficacy
- Asparagus racemosus
- Cyperus compressus
- Gastrothylax crumenifer
- Scanning electron microscopy
- Sesbania sesban var. bicolor