Skip to main content
Log in

Studies on Growth, Behavior and Blood Profile in Anabas testudineus Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Proceedings of the Zoological Society Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The present paper deals with the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airbreathing fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). The fishes were intraperitoneally injected with experimental bacterial suspension at the dose of T1—2.0 × 102 CFU/ml, T2—2.0 × 103 CFU/ml, T3—2.0 × 104 CFU/ml, T4—2.0 × 105 CFU/ml and T5—2.0 × 106 CFU/ml. The result showed significant decrease in the values of red blood cells and haemoglobin in infected fish. However, the values of white blood cells and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the infected fish. Liver enzymes like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher values in the treated fish compared to healthy fish. Changes in behavior and histopathological alterations were observed in the experimental fishes along with the decrease in length and loss in body weight. Necrosis and hyperplasia in the gills, liver and kidney tissues were also evident in the infected fish.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Alagappan, K.M., B. Deivasigamani, S. Kumaran, and M. Sakthivel. 2009. Histopathological alterations in estuarine Catfish (Arius maculatus; Thunberg, 1792) due to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. World Journal of Marine Science 1: 185–189.

    Google Scholar 

  • APHA (American Public Health Association). 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. In ed. L.S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, A. D. Eaton 21st edn.

  • Banerjee, G., A. Nandi, and A.K. Ray. 2016. Assessment of hemolytic activity, enzyme production and bacteriocin characterization of Bacillus subtilis LR1 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of fish. Archives of Microbiology 199: 115–124.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barlow, G.W. 1961. Ethology of the Asian teleost Badis badis. I. Locomotion, maintenance, aggregation and fright. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 55: 175–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blaxhall, P.C., and K.W. Daisely. 1973. Routine hematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology 5: 771–781.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boon, J.H., C.J.A. Lokin, R. Ceusters, and F. Ollevier. 1989. Some properties of the blood of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the possible relationship with Anguillicola crassus infestations. Aquaculture 76: 203–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Camargo, M.M.P., and C.B.R. Martinez. 2007. Histopathology of gills, kidney and liver of a Neotropical fish caged in an urban stream. Neotropical Ichthyology 5: 327–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chandra, G., I. Bhattacharjee, and S. Chatterjee. 2015. Bacillus cereus infection in stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) and their recovery by Argemone mexicana seed extract. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 14(3): 741–753.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dacie, J.V., and S.M. Lewis. 1984. Practical hematology, 6th ed. New York: Churchill.

    Google Scholar 

  • David, M., S.B. Mushigeri, and M.S. Prashanth. 2002. Toxicity of fenvalerate to the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Geobios 29: 25–28.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dhiraj, C., and B. Sujata. 2014. The histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of microsporidian infection in Catla (Catla catla) and their effects on antioxidant enzymes and protein expression. International Journal of Advanced Research 2: 608–624.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabagambi, N.P., A.V. Salvanes, F. Midtøy, and A. Skorping. 2019. The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis alters the behavior of the fish intermediate host Engraulicypris sardella, but only after it has become infective to the final host. Behavioural Processes 158: 47–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gabriel, U.U., G.N.O. Ezeri, and O.O. Opabunmi. 2004. Influence of sex, source, health status and acclimation on the haematology of Clarias gariepinus (Burch, 1822). African Journal of Biotechnology 3(9): 463–467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Genc, E., A. Sahan, T. Altun, I. Cengizler, and E. Nevsat. 2005. Occurrence of the swim bladder parasite Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in Ceyhan River, Turkey. The Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 29: 661–663.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh, S., S. Panda, and P.K. Bandyopadhyay. 2014. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. And Euphorbia hirta against three pathogenic bacteria. In Proceedings of the national conference on challenges in biodiversity and resource management.

  • Gomez, K.A., and A.A. Gomez. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Groff, J.M., and S.E. LaPatra. 2000. Infectious diseases impacting the commercial culture of salmonids. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 10: 17–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, R.A., and D.W. Wichern. 1992. Applied multivariate statistical analysis. Delhi: Pearson education of India.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karunasagar, I., I. Karunasagar, and S.K. Otta. 2003. Disease problems affecting fish in tropical environments. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 13: 231–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karvonen, A., and O. Seppälä. 2008. Effect of eye fluke infection on the growth of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)—An experimental approach. Aquaculture 279: 6–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keene, J.L., D.L.G. Noakes, R.D. Moccia, and C.G. Soto. 1998. The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture Research 29: 89–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khalil, S.A., R.H. Khalil, T.T. Saad, and M.M. Safaa. 2010. Studies on Pseudomonas septicemia among cultured Oreochromus niloticus. Journal of the Aquaculture Association of Saudi Arabia 5: 55–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr, and R.J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin–phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193: 265–275.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Magare, S.R., and H.T. Patil. 2000. Effect of pesticides on oxygen consumption, red blood cell count and metabolites of a fish, Puntius ticto. Environment and Ecology 18: 891–894.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mastan, S.A. 2013. Pseudomonas Septicemia in Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cyrinus carpio (Linn.) in Andhra Pradesh—Natural occurrence and Artificial challenge. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5: 564–568.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pal, B.C. 1969. Ethology of the Indian spike-tailed paradise fish, Macropodus cupanus. (Cuv. And Val.) (Anabantidae). Sc. D. Thesis, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

  • Palikova, M., and S. Navratil. 2001. Occurrence of Anguillicola crassus in the water reservoir Korycany (Czech Republic) and its influence on the health condition and haematological indices of eels. Acta Veterinaria Brno 70: 443–449.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Panda, S., P.K. Bandyopadhyay, and S.N. Chatterjee. 2012. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PB112 (JN996498) isolated from infected Labeo bata (Hamilton) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. African Journal of Biotechnology 12: 400–405.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paniagua, C., R. Octavio, A. Juan, and N. German. 1990. Pathogenicity factors and virulence for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) of motile Aeromonas spp. isolated from a river. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 28: 350–355.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reed, L.J., and H.A. Muench. 1938. Simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 27: 493–497.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reitman, S., and S. Frankel. 1957. A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28: 649–654.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seiverd, C.E. 1964. Hematology for medical technologist’s. Philadelphia: Lea and febiger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shayo, S., C. Mwita, and K. Hosea. 2012. Virulence of Pseudomonas and Aeromonas bacteria recovered from Oreochromis niloticus (Perege) from Mtera hydropower Dam; Tanzania. Annals of Biological Research 3: 5157–5161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steffens, W. 1989. Principles of fish nutrition. Chichester: Ellis Horwood.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, J., S. Thanigaivel, S. Vijayakumar, K. Acharya, D. Shinge, T.S.J. Seelan, A. Mukherjee, and N. Chandrasekaran. 2014. Pathogenecity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Oreochromis mossambicus and treatment using lime oil nanoemulsion. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 116: 372–377.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vasudeva Rao, Y., B.K. Das, P. Jyotyrmayee, and R. Chakrabarti. 2006. Effect of Achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 20: 263–273.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Verma, V.K., K.V. Rani, N. Sehgal, and O. Prakash. 2014. Enhanced disease resistance in the Indian snakehead, Channa punctata against Aeromonas hydrophila, through 5% feed supplementation with F. benghalensis (aerial root) and L. leucocephala (pod seed). Aquaculture International.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verma, H., and N. Srivastava. 2010. Changes in certain enzymes of the ovary and liver in Chana punctatus. ElectronicJournal of Ichthyology 6: 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walter, K., and C. Schutt. 1974. Method of enzymatic analysis. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woo, P.T.K. 2006. Fish diseases and disorders, Volume 1: Protozoan and metazoan infections, 2nd ed. CAB International.

Download references


The authors are thankful to the University of Kalyani for providing infrastructural facilities and financial support for this research work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



SH, Prof. PKB and Dr. KM conceived, designed the study and analyzed the data. The microbiological and histological experiment designed by SH and Prof. PKB; fish behavioral, biochemical and growth related experiment designed by Dr. KM. Ms. SH wrote the manuscript while other authors read, commented and finalized the current manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Probir Kumar Bandyopadhyay.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Haque, S., Bandyopadhyay, P.K. & Mondal, K. Studies on Growth, Behavior and Blood Profile in Anabas testudineus Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Zool Soc 74, 19–27 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: