Assemblage of Waterbird Species in an Anthropogenic Zone Along the Mahanadi River of Odisha, Eastern India: Implications for Management

Abstract

We studied the seasonal diversity and relative abundance of waterbirds within an anthropogenic zone along the Mahanadi River in eastern India in the period August 2016 to July 2017. Fixed radius point count method was used to monitor the birds and estimating their population. A total of 58 species of waterbirds including 23 winter migrants in 15 families and five orders were identified. The species richness was observed highest (57 species) during February and March and lowest (28 species) during September. The species richness and their relative abundance varied significantly between different months (χ2 = 39.45, df = 11, P < 0.01), but not between seasons (F = 1.73, df = 2, 152, P > 0.05). Breeding activities of five globally threatened species: Endangered Black-bellied Tern, Vulnerable Indian Skimmer and Near Threatened River Tern, River Lapwing and Great Thick-knee were recorded from the study site. Therefore, protection and conservation of the site deserves priority during breeding season. It can be achieved through regular community awareness to the locals. Our study findings also create opportunities to reassess the breeding ecology of the globally threatened waterbirds.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Ackerman, J.T., M.P. Herzog, and C.A. Hartman. 2014. Effects of human disturbance on waterbird nesting and reproductive success at restoration pond SF2, south San Francisco Bay, California. United States: U.S. Geological Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Balachandran, S., P. Sathiyaselvam, and S. Panda. 2009. Bird atlas of Chilika. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bhat, I.P., S.S. Cristopher, and B.B. Hosetti. 2009. Avifaunal diversity of Anekere wetland, Karkala Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Journal of Environmental Biology 30: 1059–1062.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Bibby, C.J., N.D. Burgess, D.A. Hill, and S. Mustoe. 2000. Bird census techniques. California: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: The BirdLife international red data book. UK: BirdLife International.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Crosby, M.J., and S. Chan. 2006. Threatened waterbird species in eastern and southern Asia and actions needed for their conservation. In Waterbirds around the world, ed. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith, and D.A. Stroud, 332–338. UK: The Stationery Office.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Debata, S., T. Kar, K.K. Swain, and H.S. Palei. 2017. The vulnerable Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis Swainson, 1838 (Aves: Charadriiformes: Laridae) breeding in Odisha, eastern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9: 10961–10963. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3445.9.11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Fraser, L.H., and P.A. Keddy. 2005. The world’s largest wetlands: Ecology and conservation. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Gill, F. and D. Donsker. 2017. IOC World Bird List (v 7.3). https://doi.org/10.14344/ioc.ml.7.3.

  10. Green, A.J. 1996. Analyses of globally threatened Anatidae in relation to threats, distribution, migration patterns and habitat use. Conservation Biology 10: 1435–1445. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10051435.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Green, A.J., and J. Elmberg. 2014. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds. Biological Review 89: 105–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12045.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Grimmet, R., C. Inskipp, and T. Inskipp. 2011. Birds of the Indian subcontinent. India: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Hammer, Ø., D.A.T. Harper, and P.D. Ryan. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologica Electronica 4: 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Kelly, J.P., and J.G. Evens. 2013. Boating disturbance to waterbirds in california estuaries, ACR Technical Report. Marshall: Cypress Grove Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Khan, T.N. 2010. Temporal changes to the abundance and community structure of migratory waterbirds in Santragachhi Lake, West Bengal, and their relationship with water hyacinth cover. Current Science 99: 1570–1577.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kumar, A., J.P. Sat, P.C. Tak, and J.R.B. Alfred. 2005. Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation. Kolkata: Zoological Survey of India.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kumar, J.I.N., H. Soni, and R.N. Kumar. 2007. Patterns of seasonal abundance and diversity in the waterbird community of Nal Lake Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Bird Populations 8: 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kumar, P., and S.K. Gupta. 2013. Status of wetland birds of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5: 3969–3976. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3158.3969-76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kumar, P., D. Rai, and S.K. Gupta. 2016. Wetland bird assemblage in rural ponds of Kurukshetra, India. Waterbirds 39: 86–98. https://doi.org/10.1675/063.039.0111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kumar, P. and A. Sharma. 2018. Wetland birds assemblages in man-made sacred ponds of Kurukshetra, India. In Proceedings of the Zoological Society. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-018-0259-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lee, D.C., and S.J. Marsden. 2008. Adjusting count period strategies to improve the accuracy of forest bird abundance estimates from point transect distance sampling surveys. Ibis 150: 315–325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00790.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mazumdar, S. 2017. Composition of avian communities in a human-provided wetland Okhla bird sanctuary: With notes on conservation initiatives. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-017-0239-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Malik, D.S., and N. Joshi. 2013. Habitat selection pattern of migratory avifauna in relation to nutrients in Asan wetland at Doon Valley (Garhwal Himalaya), India. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research 4: 1470–1475.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Morrison, M.L. 1986. Bird populations as indicators of environmental changes. In Current ornithology, vol. 3, ed. R.F. Johnston, 429–451. Boston: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6784-4_10.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Mukhopadhyay, S., and S. Mazumdar. 2017. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India. The Ring 39: 103–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Nair, M.V., S. Panda, and A.K. Pradhan. 2014. Hirakud wetlands, Odisha: A little known refuge and potential IBA for wintering waterfowl. In Waterbirds of India, ed. G.V. Gopi and S.A. Hussain, 186–201. Dehradun: Wildlife Institute of India.

    Google Scholar 

  27. O’Connel, M. 2000. Threats to waterbirds and wetlands: Implications for conservation, inventory and research. Wildfowl 51: 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Pradhan, S., L. Patnaik, D. Raut, and S. Swain. 2014. Assessment of plankton diversity of Mahanadi River at Jobra and Sikharpur, Cuttack. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 5: 1061–1066. https://doi.org/10.14299/ijser.2014.0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Prasad, S.N., T.V. Ramachandra, N. Ahalya, T. Sengupta, A. Kumar, A.K. Tiwari, V.S. Vijayan, and L. Vijayan. 2002. Conservaton of wetlands of India: A review. Tropical Ecology 43: 173–186.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Praveen, J., R. Jayapal, and A. Pittie. 2016. A checklist of the birds of India. Indian BIRDS 11: 113–172.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Rahmani, A.R. 2012. Threatened birds of India: Their conservation requirements. India: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Rahmani, A.R., and M.V. Nair. 2012. Threatened birds of Odisha. India: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Rajashekara, S., and M.G. Venkatesha. 2010. The diversity and abundance of waterbirds in lakes of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Biosystematica 4: 63–73.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Rajashekara, S., and M.G. Venkatesha. 2011. Community composition of aquatic birds in lakes of Bangalore. India. Journal of Environmental Biology 32 (1): 77–83.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Rajashekara, S., and M.G. Venkatesha. 2014. Eco-spatial and temporal variation in waterbirds composition and their relationship with habitat characteristics of urban lakes of Bengaluru city. India. International Journal of Advanced Research 2 (7): 60–80.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Rajashekara, S. and M.G. Venkatesha. 2017. Impact of urban threats and disturbance on the survival of waterbird communities in wetlands of Bengaluru City, India. In Proceedings of the Zoological Society https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-017-0217-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Saygili, F., N. Yigit, and S. Bulut. 2011. The spatial and temporal distributions of waterbirds in Lakes Aksehir Eber and Lake Koyceigz in western Anatolia, Turkey—A comparative analysis. Turkish Journal of Zoology 35: 467–480. https://doi.org/10.3906/zoo-0911-99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Singh, T.K. 2014. Fish diversity in selected stretch of the River Mahanadi in Odisha and the livelihood of inhabiting fisher community. International Research Journal of Biological Science 3: 98–104.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Swain, K.K., T. Kar, S. Debata, and H.S. Palei. 2017. A preliminary study on habitat characteristic and population status of vulnerable Indian Skimmer (Rynchops albicollis) along the Mahanadi river bed in Chandaka Wildlife Division, Odisha. Bhubaneswar: Chandaka Wildlife Division and Aranya Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Urfi, A.J., M. Sen, A. Kalam, and J. Megnathan. 2005. Counting birds in India: Methodologies and trends. Current Science 89: 1997–2003.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Zakaria, M., M.N. Rajpar, and S.A. Sajap. 2009. Species diversity and feeding guilds of birds in Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Zoological Research 5: 86–100. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijzr.2009.86.100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The study was carried out with the financial support from the State Forest Department, Odisha allotted to Chandaka Wildlife Division. We are thankful to the Divisional Forest Officer, Chandaka Wildlife Division for providing logistic support during the study. Special thanks to the local people of the study area for their help and support during the study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Subrat Debata.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kar, T., Debata, S. Assemblage of Waterbird Species in an Anthropogenic Zone Along the Mahanadi River of Odisha, Eastern India: Implications for Management. Proc Zool Soc 72, 355–363 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-018-0276-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Conservation
  • Mahanadi River
  • Odisha
  • Threatened birds
  • Waterbirds