Proceedings of the Zoological Society

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 74–82 | Cite as

Effect of Dietary Incorporation of Dry-Powdered Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Meal on Growth and Digestibility of Labeo rohita Fingerlings

  • Dipesh Debnath
  • Sona Yengkokpam
  • B. K. Bhattacharjya
  • Pradyut Biswas
  • C. Prakash
  • M. P. S. Kohli
  • A. P. Sharma
Research Article
  • 60 Downloads

Abstract

Keeping the importance and search for unconventional feed resources and/or standardizing their level of incorporation in mind, we incorporated dry-powdered water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) meal in feeds and studied its effect on growth and digestibility in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Five feeds with 30 % crude protein level were formulated using Eichhornia meal (EM) at 0 (control), 5 (EMF1), 10 (EMF2), 15 (EMF3) or 20 % (EMF4) of the diet replacing rice bran by equal proportions. Three hundred fingerlings (7.40 ± 0.05 cm; 5.27 ± 0.12 g) were distributed into fifteen tanks (200 l capacity) and fed the experimental diets for 60 days. In the last 30 days, digestibility studies were conducted using 0.5 % chromic oxide as an external marker in feed. At 10 % inclusion of EM, the experimental fish showed the highest weight gain percent (WG%), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization with lowest feed conversion ratio. Whereas the growth performance at 15 % inclusion level was comparable with the control and further increase to 20 % level of EM showed reduced growth responses but the feed was fairly palatable to the fish. Lower digestibility was also observed in EMF4 group. It is concluded that EM can be included at 15 % level in the feed of L. rohita fingerlings without adversely affecting the growth, dry matter and nutrient digestibility. However, economic feasibility of this feedstuff needs to be analyzed to see whether the reduced cost of diets would compensate for the reduced performance of fish at higher inclusion levels.

Keywords

Labeo rohita Eichhornia crassipes Digestibility Growth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Director, ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), Barrackpore, Kolkata, India for the financial support to carry out the work; the Managing Director and field staff of the Assam Fisheries Development Corporation Limited, Guwahati as well as the lessee of Charan beel for providing help and assistance in carrying out the experiment. I (Pradyut Biswas) am thankful to the Director, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai, India and the Director, ICAR-CIFRI, Barrackpore for allowing me to work in ICAR-CIFRI Regional Centre, Guwahati, Assam for my doctoral research.

References

  1. AOAC. 2005. Association of official analytical chemists, official methods of analysis. 18th Edition. Rev. 2, 2007. Gaithersburg, MA: AOAC International.Google Scholar
  2. APHA, Awwa, and WEF. 1998. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Wealth Association.Google Scholar
  3. Ayyappan, S., and J.K. Jena. 1998. Carp culture in India-a sustainable farming practice. In Advances in aquatic biology and fisheries, ed. P. Natarajan, K. Devendran, C.M. Aravindan, and S.D. Rita Kumari, 125–153. Trivandrum: University of Kerala.Google Scholar
  4. Bardach, J.E., J.H. Ryther, and W.O. McLarney. 1972. Aquaculture—The farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Buddington, R.K. 1980. Hydrolysis-resistant organic matter as a reference for measurement of fish digestion efficiency. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109: 653–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Silva, S.S., and M.K. Perera. 1983. Digestibility of an aquatic macrophyte by the cichlid Etroplus suratensis (Bloch) with observations on the relative merits of three indigenous components as markers and daily changes in protein digestibility. Journal of Fish Biology 23: 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dey, S.C., and S. Sarmah. 1982. Prospect of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as feed to cultivable fishes-a preliminary study with Tilapia mossambica Peters. Matsya 8: 40–44.Google Scholar
  8. Dorsa, W.J., E.H. Robinson, and W.E. Poe. 1982. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal and gossypol on growth of young channel catfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 3: 651–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edwards, P. 1987. Use of terrestrial vegetation and aquatic macrophytes in aquaculture. In Detritus and Microbial Ecology in Aquaculture, eds. D.J.W. Moriarty, R.S.V. Pullin, 311–335 Manila, ICLARM Conference Proceedings No. 14.Google Scholar
  10. Edwards, P., M. Kamal, and K.L. Wee. 1985. Incorporation of composted and dried water hyacinth in pelleted feed for the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Peters). Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 16: 233–248.Google Scholar
  11. El-Sayed, A.F.M. 2003. Effects of fermentation methods on the nutritive value of water hyacinth for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) fingerlings. Aquaculture 218: 471–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El-Sayed, A.F.M. 2008. Effects of substituting fish meal with Azolla pinnata in practical diets for fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture Research 23: 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fagbenro, O.A. 1992. Quantitative dietary protein requirements of Clarias isheriensis (Synderham, 1988) (Clariidae) fingerlings. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 8: 164–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gohl, B. 1981. Tropical feeds; feed information summaries and nutritive values. FAO Animal Production and Health Series No. 12, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  15. Gopal, B. 1987. Water Hyacinth (Aquatic plant studies 1), 471. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  16. Halver, J.E. 1976. The nutritional requirements of cultivated warm water and coldwater fish species. Paper No. 31. FAO technical conference on aquaculture, Kyoto, 26 May–2 June.Google Scholar
  17. Hasan, M.R. 1990. Evaluation of leucaena and water hyacinth leaf meal as dietary protein sources for the fry of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). In Proceedings of BAU Research Progress 4, ed. M.H. Mian, 209–221. Mymensingh: Bangladesh Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  18. Hasan, M.R., and P.K. Roy. 1994. Evaluation of water hyacinth leaf meal as dietary protein source for Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. In Proceedings of The Third Asian Fisheries Forum, eds. L.M. Chou, A.D. Munro, T.J. Lam, T.W. Chen, L.K.K. Cheong, J.K. Ding, K.K. Hooi, H.W. Khoo, V.P.E., Phang, K.F. Shim, C.H. Tan, 671–674. Manila, Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  19. Hasan, M.R., M. Moniruzzaman, and A.M. Omar Farooque. 1990. Evaluation of leucaena and water hyacinth leaf meal as dietary protein sources for the fry of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). In Proceedings of the second Asian fisheries forum, ed. R. Hirano, and I. Hanyu, 275–278. Manila: Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  20. Hutabarat, J., L. Syarani, and A.K.M. Smith. 1986. The use of freshwater hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in cage culture in Lake Rawa Penang, Central Java. In The first Asian fisheries forum proceedings, ed. J.L. Maclean, L.B. Dizon, and L.V. Hosillos, 570–580. Manila: Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  21. Jackson, A.J., B.S. Capper, and A.J. Matty. 1982. Evaluation of some plant proteins in complete diets for the tilapia, Sartherodon mossambicus. Aquaculture 27: 97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalita, P., P.K. Mukhopadhyay, and A.K. Mukherjee. 2007. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of four unexplored aquatic weeds from North East India for the formulation of cost-effective fish feeds. Food Chemistry 103: 204–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan, M.A., A.K. Jafri, and N.K. Chadha. 2004. Growth and body composition of rohu (L. rohita) fed compound diet: Winter feeding and rearing to marketable size. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klinavee, S., R. Tansakul, and W. Promkuntong. 1990. Growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with aquatic plant mixtures. In Proceedings of The Second Asian Fisheries Forum, ed. R. Hirano, and I. Hanyu, 283–286. Manila: Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  25. Lareo, L., and R. Bressani. 1982. Possible utilization of the water hyacinth in nutrition and industry. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 4(4): 60–64. http://www.unu.edu/unupress/food/8f044e/8F044E00.htm#Contents.
  26. Liang, J.K., and R.T. Lovell. 1971. Nutritional value of water hyacinth in channel catfish feeds. Hyacinth Control Journal 9: 40–44.Google Scholar
  27. Mohanty, S.N., K.M. Das, and S. Sarkar. 1995. Effect of feeding varying dietary formulations on body composition of rohu fry. J. Aqua. 3: 23–28.Google Scholar
  28. Mukhopadhyay, N., and A.K. Ray. 1999. Improvement of quality of sesame Seasamum indicum seed meal protein with supplemental amino acids in feeds for rohu L. rohita fingerlings. Aquaculture Research 30: 549–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mukhopadhyay, N., and A.K. Ray. 1997. The apparent total and nutrient digestibility of sal seed (Shorea robusta) meal in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings. Aquaculture Research 28: 683–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mukhopadhyay, N., and A.K. Ray. 2001. Effect of amino acid supplementation on the nutritive quality of fermented linseed meal protein in the diet for rohu L. rohita fingerlings. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17: 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murthy, H.S., and K.V. Devaraj. 1990. Effect of Eichhornia based feed on the growth of carps. In The second Indian fisheries forum proceedings, ed. M.J. Modayil, 9–11. Mangalore: Asian Fisheries Society Indian Branch.Google Scholar
  32. Nandeesha, M.C., G.K., Srikanth, P., Keshavanath, and S.K. Das. 1991. Protein and fat digestibility of five feed ingredients by an Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.). In Fish Nutrition Research in Asia, ed. S.S. De Silva, 75–81. Special Publication No. 5, Manila: Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  33. Niamat, R., and A.K. Jafri. 1984. Preliminary observations on the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) leaf meal as protein source in fish feeds. International Journal of Current Science 53: 339–340.Google Scholar
  34. Ofojekwu, P.C., and C. Ejike. 1984. Growth response and feed utilization in the tropical (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on cottonseed based artificial diets. Aquaculture 4: 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Patnaik, K.S., and K.M. Das. 1979. Utilization of some aquatic weeds as feed for rearing carp spawn and fry. In Proceedings of the symposium on Inland aquaculture. Barrackpore: Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute.Google Scholar
  36. Paul, B.N., S. Nandi, S. Sarkar, and P.K. Mukhopadhyay. 1998. Dietary essentiality of phospholipids in Indian major carp larvae. Asian Fisheries Science 11: 253–259.Google Scholar
  37. Ray, A.K., and I. Das. 1994. Apparent digestibility of some aquatic macrophytes in rohu Labeo rohita (Ham.) fingerlings. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics 9: 335–342.Google Scholar
  38. Riechert, C., and R. Trede. 1977. Preliminary experiments on utilization of water hyacinth by grass carp. Weed Research 17: 357–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Robinson, E.H., S.D. Rawles, P.W. Oldenburg, and R.R. Stickney. 1984. Effects of feeding gland less or glanded cottonseed products and gossypol to Tilapia aurea. Aquaculture 38: 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Saint-Paul, U., U. Werder, and A.S. Teixeira. 1981. Use of water hyacinth in feeding trials with matrincha (Brycon sp.). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 19: 18–22.Google Scholar
  41. Soliman, A.K. 2000. Water hyacinth protein concentrate meal as a partial fish meal replacer in red tilapia diets. In Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on tilapia aquaculture, eds. K. Fitzsimmons, J.C. Filho, 221–226. Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
  42. Somsueb, P. 1995. Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Thailand. In FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 343, eds. M.B. New, A.G.J. Tacon, I. Csavas, 365–385. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  43. Stickney, R.R., and S.E. Shumway. 1974. Occurrence of cellulase activity in the stomach of fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 6: 779–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tacon, A.G.J., and A. Jackson. 1985. Utilization of conventional and nonconventional protein sources in practical feeds. In Nutrition and feeding in fish, ed. C.B. Cowey, A.M. Mackie, and J.G. Bell, 119–145. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. Tacon, A.G.J., M.J. Phillips, and U.C. Barg. 1995. Aquaculture feeds and the environment. Water Science and Technology 31: 41–50.Google Scholar
  46. Talwar, P.K., and A.G. Jhingran. 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries, vol. 1, 541. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd.Google Scholar
  47. Tuan, N.A., Thuy, N.Q., Tam, B.M., and V.V. Ut. 1994. Use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as supplementary feed for nursing fish in Vietnam. In Fish nutrition research in Asia, special publication no. 9, ed. S.S. De Silva, 101–106. Manila: Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Zoological Society, Kolkata, India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dipesh Debnath
    • 1
  • Sona Yengkokpam
    • 1
  • B. K. Bhattacharjya
    • 1
  • Pradyut Biswas
    • 3
    • 4
  • C. Prakash
    • 3
  • M. P. S. Kohli
    • 3
  • A. P. Sharma
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (ICAR), Regional CentreHOUSEFED ComplexGuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (ICAR)Barrackpore, KolkataIndia
  3. 3.Aquaculture DivisionCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.College of FisheriesCentral Agricultural UniversityLembucherra, AgartalaIndia

Personalised recommendations