Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 323–328 | Cite as

Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of the Sediments of Chandigarh Area

  • G. C. Kandpal
  • K. K. Agarwal
Research Articles


Assessment of the liquefaction potential is one of the important aspects for earthquake hazard assessment. Liquefaction in the sediments during earthquake events may cause significant ground deformation, which in turn, may lead to significant structural damages to civil or engineering structures, further leading to loss of life and property. Liquefaction in sediments occurs in specific geological and geoenvironmental conditions under the influence of a certain level of earthquake shaking.

In this paper an assessment of the liquefaction potential of the sediments present in and around Chandigarh has been made. The sub-surface disposition and geotechnical properties of the sedimentary units mapped and depth wise probed by drilling 24 shallow boreholes prima facie indicates susceptibility of interlayed sequence to liquefaction. The conditioning factors and geoenvironmental conditions essential for occurrence of liquefaction have been integrated and analysed to determine potential areas for liquefaction around the Union Territory of Chandigarh with respect to different levels of ground acceleration values expected in the area due to earthquake events.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ambraseys, N.N. (1988) Earthquake induced ground displacement. Earthquake Engg. and Structural Dynamics, v.17, pp.1–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CGWB (2002) Hydrogeology of Chandigarh. Report of Central Ground Water Board.Google Scholar
  3. Dharamraju, R., Ramakrishna, V.V.G.S.T. and Gayarti Devi. (2007) Liquefaction Potential assessment of Chandigarh City, Proceedings Microzonation Workshop at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, pp.176–181.Google Scholar
  4. GSI (2006) Miscellaneous Publication No.-30: Part XV. Geology and Mineral resources of the States of India, Part XV: Punjab and Chandigarh.Google Scholar
  5. Kandpal, G.C, Joshi, K.C., Joshi, D.D. and Pande, P. (2007) Liquefaction in the riverine sediments in Jammu area During 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake. In: National Conference on Remote Sensing and Surface Processes, Lucknow 20, 2007 (Abst.).Google Scholar
  6. Kandpal, G.C, Joshi K.C, John Biju, Ram Sagina, Chaube, S.P., Zahidi, A., Singh, A.K. and Nand Lal. ( 2008) A report on Seismic Microzonation of Chandigarh Urban omplex. (Uploaded in GSI Portal)Google Scholar
  7. Kandpal, G.C., John Biju and Joshi, K.C. (2009) Geotechnical Studies in Relation to Seismic Microzonation of Union Territory of Chandigarh. Jour. Indian Geophys. Union, v.13(2), pp.75–84.Google Scholar
  8. Kayen, R.E., Mitchell, J. K., Seed, R. B., Longe, A., Nishio, S., and Cotheno, R. (1992) Evaluation of SPT, CPT and Shear Wave Velocity Method for liquefaction assessment using Loma Prieta data. Proc. 4th U.S.-Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of lifeline facilities and countermeasure of liquefaction potential. v.1, pp.111–204.Google Scholar
  9. Malik, J.N., Sahoo, A.K., Shah, A., Rawat, A. and Chaturvedi, A. (2007) Farthest recorded liquefaction around Jammu caused by 8 October Muzzaffarabad Earthquake of M = 7.6. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.69 pp.39–41.Google Scholar
  10. Marcuson, W.F. III (1978) Definition of term related to liquefaction. Jour. Geotech. Engg. Div. ASCE, v.104(9), pp.1197–1200.Google Scholar
  11. National Research Council (NRC) (1985) Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquakes, Committee on Earthquake Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Report No. CETS-EE-001, 240pGoogle Scholar
  12. Obermeier, S.F. (1996) Use of liquefaction-induced features for palaeoseismic analysis-An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how this regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes, Engineering Geol., v.44, pp.1–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Oldham, R.D. (1899) Report on the great earthquake of the 12th June, 1897. Geol. Surv. India Mem. v.29, Reprinted 1981. Geol. Surv. India, Calcutta 379p.Google Scholar
  14. Pande, P. and Kayal, J.R. (2003) Kutch (Bhuj) Earthquake, 26 January 2001. Geo. Surv. India, Spec. Publ., v.20 201p.Google Scholar
  15. Poddar, M.C. (1950) The Assam earthquake of 15th August, 1950. Indian Minerals, v.4, pp.167–176Google Scholar
  16. Seed, H.B. (1979) Soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility evaluations for level grand during earthquakes. Jour. Geotech. Engg. Amer. Soc. Civil Engg., v.105 (GT2), pp.207–255.Google Scholar
  17. Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M., (1971) Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil Liquefaction Potential. Jour. SMFE, ASCE, v.97(9), pp.1249–1273.Google Scholar
  18. Seed, H.B. Idriss, I.M. and Arango, I. (1983) Evaluation of liquefaction potential using field performance. Jour. Geotech. Engg. Amer. Soc. Civil Engineers, v.109(3), pp.458–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M. (1982) Ground motions and liquefaction during earthquakes, Monograph No.5. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Berkeley California, 134p.Google Scholar
  20. Seed, H.B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L.F. and Chung, R.M. (1985) Influence of SPT Procedures in soil liquefaction resistance evaluations. Jour. Geotech. Engg., ASCE, v.111(12), pp.1425–1445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Seed, R.D., Cetin K.O., Moess R.E.S, Kammer, A.M., Wu, J., Prastana, J.M., and Riemer, M.F. (2001) Recent advances in soil liquefaction Engineering and seismic site response evaluation. Prooc. Fourth International Conferenceon Recent advances in earthquake engineering and soil dynamics. San Diago March 26-31 2001, pp.1–45.Google Scholar
  22. Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R.B. (1967) Soil mechanics in engineering practice (2nd ed.) New York, John Wiley, 729p.Google Scholar
  23. Tsuchida, H. and Hayashi, S. (1971) Estimation of liquefaction potential of sandy soils. Proceedings of the Third Joint Meeting, US-Japan Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects, UJNR, Tokyo, pp.91–101.Google Scholar
  24. Youd, T.L. (1973) Liquefaction, flow and associated ground failures: USGS Circular no.688, 12p.Google Scholar
  25. Youd, T.L., Idriss, I.M., Andrus, R.D., Arango, I, Castro, G., Christian, J.T., Dobry, R., Finn, W.D.L., Hardes, L.F., Hynes, M.E., Ishihara, K., Koester, J.P., Liao, S.S.C, Marcuson, W.F., Martin, G.R., Mitchell, J.K., Moriwati, Y., Power, M.S., Roberson, P.K., Seed, R.B. and Stokoe, K.H. (2001) Liquefaction resistance of Soils: Summary report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF workshops on evaluation of liquefaction resistance of soils. Jour. Geotech. Geoenv. Engg., v.127, pp.817–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regional Training InstituteGeological Survey of India, NRLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyLucknow UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations