Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 89, Issue 4, pp 460–470 | Cite as

Impact of bioturbation on reservoir quality and production – A review

  • Joyjit Dey
  • Souvik Sen
Research Articles


Bioturbation is a typically small scale yet potentially significant geological process altering rock properties by reworking. For many years, bioturbation studies found application in exploration geology to estimate paleobathymetry, interpreting depositional environment and identifying key stratigraphic surfaces. These act as vital inputs to the geological models, for determination of source rock potential, reservoir quality and modeling of petroleum systems. Recently geologists extended the application of bioturbation studies to address production related challenges. Recognizing the bioturbation effects and incorporating them in reservoir simulation models can improve production predictions and enhanced oil recovery operations. This paper discusses bioturbation and its effects on reservoir quality, its performance and production.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ainsworth, R.B., Vakarelov, B.K. and Nanson, R.A. (2011) Dynamic spatial and temporal prediction of changes in depositional processes on clastic shorelines: Toward improved subsurface uncertainty reduction and management: AAPG Bull., v.95, pp. 267–297.Google Scholar
  2. Ali, S.A., Clark, W.J., Moore, W.R. and Dribus, J.R. (2010) Diagenesis and Reservoir Quality. Oilfield Rev., v.22, no.2, pp.14–27.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Awadi, M., Clark, W.J., Moore, W.R., Herron, M., Zhang, T., Zhao, W., Hurley, N., Kho, D., Montaron, B. and Sadooni, F. (2009) Dolomite: Perspectives on a Perplexing Mineral. Oilfield Rev., v.21, no.3, pp.32–45.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Hajeri, M.M., Al Saeed, K., Derks, J., Fuchs, T., Hantschel, T., Kauerauf, A., Neumaier, M., Schenk, O., Swientek, O., Tessen, N., Welte, D., Wygrala, B., Kornpihl, D. and Peters, K. (2009) Basin and Petroleum System Modeling. Oilfield Rev., v.21, no.2, pp.14–29.Google Scholar
  5. Aplin, A.C. and Macquaker, J.H.S. (2011) Mudstone Diversity: Origin and Implications for Source, Seal and Reservoir Properties in Petroleum Systems, AAPG Bull., v.95, no.12, pp.2031–2059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ausich, W.I. and Bottjer, D.J. (1982) Tiering in suspension feeding communities on soft substrata throughout the Phanerozoic: Science, v.216, pp.173–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baniak, G.M., Gingras, M.K., Burns, B., and Pemberton, S.G. (2011) Petrophysical characterization of bioturbated facies from the Upper Jurassic Ula Formation, Norwegian North Sea, Europe. AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition Abstracts, Houston, Texas, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Baniak, G.M., Gingras, M.K., and Pemberton, S.G. (2012) Reservoir characterization of burrow-mottled dolomites: Devonian Wabamun group, West-central Alberta, Canada. Geoconvention 2012: Vision.Google Scholar
  9. Baniak, G.M., Gingras, M.K. and Pemberton, S.G. (2013) Reservoir Characterization of Burrow-Associated Dolomites in the Upper Devonian Wabamun Group, Pine Creek Gas Field, Central Alberta, Canada. Marine Petrol. Geol., v.8, pp.275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bednarz, M., and Mcllroy, D. (2012) Effect of phycosiphoniform burrows on shale gas hydrocarbon reservoir quality. AAPG Bull., v.96, No.10, pp.1957–1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-Awuah, J., and Padmanabhan, E., 2014. Impact of Bioturbation on Reservoir Quality: A Case Study of Biogenically Reduced Permeabilities of Reservoir Sandstones of the Baram Delta, Sarawak, Malaysia. Jour. Appld. Sci., v.96, pp.3312–3317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bentley, S. J. and Nittrouer, C.A. (2003) Emplacement, modification, and preservation of event strata on a flood-dominated continental shelf: Eel shelf, Northern California: Continental Shelf’ Research, v.23, pp.1465–1493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bentley, S.J. and Sheremet, A. (2003) New model for the emplacement, bioturbation, and preservation of fine-scaled sedimentary strata: Geology, v.31, pp.725–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berger, W. H., Ekdale, A.A. and Bryant, P.P. (1979) Selective preservation of burrows in deep-sea carbonates: Marine Geol., v.32, pp.205–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bertling, M., Braddy, S.J., Bromley, R.G., Dernathieu, G.R., Genise, J., Mikulas, R., Nielsen, J.K., Rindsberg, A.X., Schlirf, M. and Uchman, A. (2006) Names for trace fossils: a uniform approach: Lethaia, v.39, pp.265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhattacharya, J.P. and MacEachern, J.A. (2009) Hyperpycnal rivers and prodeltaic shelves in the Cretaceous Seaway of North America: Jour. of Sediment. Res., v.79, pp.184–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bockelie, J.F. (1991) Ichnofabric mapping and interpretation of Jurassic reservoir rocks of the Norwegian North Sea: Palaios, v.6, pp.206–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bottjer, D.J. and Droser, M.L. (1991) Ichnofabric and basin analysis, Palaios, v.6, pp.199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boyd, R., Dalrymple, R.W. and Zaitlin, B.A. (2006) Estuarine and incisedvalley facies models. In: Posamentier, H.W. and Walker, R.G. (Eds.): Facies models revisited: SEPM Spec. Publ., no.84, pp.171–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandsaeter, I., Mcllroy, D., Lia, O., Ringrose, P., and Naess, A. (2005) Reservoir modelling and simulation of Lajas Formation outcrops (Argentina) to constrain tidal reservoirs of the Halten Terrace (Norway): Petroleum Geoscience, v.2, pp.37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bromley, R.G. (1996) Trace fossils: biology, taphonomy and applications: London, Chapman and Hall, 361pp.Google Scholar
  22. Bromley, R.G. and Ekdale, A.A., 1984. Chondrites: a trace fossil indicator of anoxia in sediments: Science, v.224, pp.872–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bromley, R.G. and Ekdale, A.A. (1986) Composite ichnofabrics and tiering of burrows: Geological Mag., v.123, pp.59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bromley, R.G. and Asgaard, U., 1991. Ichnofacies: a mixture of taphofacies and biofacies: Lethaia, v.24, pp.153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Buatois, L.A. and Mangano, M.G. (2004) Animal–Substrate Interaction in Freshwater Environments: Applications of Ichnology in Facies and Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Fluvio-Lacustrine Successions. In: Mcllroy, D. (Ed.): The Application of Ichnology to Paleoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis, London. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., no.228, pp.311–333.Google Scholar
  26. Buatois, L.A., Mangano, M.G., Maples, C.G., Lanier, W.P., 1997. The paradox of nonmarine ichnofaunas in tidal rhythmites: integrating sedimentologic and ichnologic data from the Late Carboniferous of Eastern Kansas, USA: Palaios, v.12, pp.478–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Buatois, L.A., Gingras, M.K., MacEachern, J.A., Mangano, M.G., Zonneveld, J.P., Pemberton, S.G., Netto, R.G. and Martin, A. (2005) Colonization of brackish-water systems through time: evidence from the trace-fossil record: Palaios, v.20, pp.321–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Buatois, L.A., Santiago, N., Parra, K., Steel, R. (2008) Animal- substrate interactions in an Early Miocene wave-dominated tropical delta: delineating environmental stresses and depositional dynamics (Tacata Field, Eastern Venezuela): Jour. Sediment. Res., v.78, pp.458–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cannon, S. J. C., and Gowland, S. (1996) Facies controls on reservoir quality in the Late Jurassic Fulmar Formation, Quadrant 21, UKCS, In Hurst, A., Johnson, H. D., Burley, S. D., Canham, A. C., and Mackertich, D. S. (Eds.): Geology of the Humber Group: Central Graben and Moray Firth, UKCS: Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., no.114, pp.215–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cummings, D.I., Arnott, R.W.C. and Hart, B.S. (2006) Tidal signatures in a shelf margin delta: Geology, v.34, pp.249–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cunningham, K.J., Sukop, M.C., Huang, H., Alvarez, P.F., Curran, H.A., Renken, R.A. and Dixon, J.F. (2009) Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne Aquifer: stratiform “super-K” zones: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., v.121, pp.164–180.Google Scholar
  32. Dalrymple, R.W. (2010) Tidal depositional systems, In: James, N.P. and Dalrymple, R.W. (Eds.): Facies Models 4: St John’s, Geological Association of Canada, pp.201–231.Google Scholar
  33. Dewhurst, D.N., Aplin, A.C. and Savrda, J.P. (1999) Influence of clay fraction on pore-scale properties and hydraulic conductivity of experimentally compacted mudstones. Jour. Geophys. Res., v, 104, pp.29261–29274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dewhurst, D.N., Aplin, A.C., Savrda, J.P. and Yang, Y.L. (1998) Compactiondriven evolution of porosity and permeability in natural mudstones: An experimental study. Jour. Geophys. Res., v.103, pp.651–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dornbos, S.Q., Phelps, W., Bottjer, D.J., Droser, M.L. and Anderson, B. (2000) Effects of bioturbation on reservoir sandstone porosity and permeability: Studies of outcrop samples from the upper Cretaceous, Book Cliffs, Utah (abs.). AAPG Annual Meeting Program 9, A40.Google Scholar
  36. Droser, M.L. and Bottjer, O.J. (1989) Ichnofabric of sandstones deposited in high energy nearshore environments; measurement and utilization: Palaios, v.4, pp.598–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ekdale, A.A. (1985) Paleoecology of the marine endobenthos: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 50, pp. 63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ekdale, A.A., and Mason, T.R., 1988, Characteristic trace-fossil associations in oxygen-poor sedimentary environments: Geology, v. 16, pp. 720–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Einsele, G., Rieken, W. and Seilacher, A. (1991) Cycles and events in stratigraphy: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 955pp.Google Scholar
  40. Florea, L.J., Cunningham, K.J. and Altobelli, S.A. (2009) NMR imaging of fluid exchange between macropores and matrix in eogenetic karst: Ground Water, v.47, pp.382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Frey, R.W., Pemberton, S.G. and Saunders, T.D.A. (1990) Ichnofacies and bathymetry: a passive relationship: Jour. Paleont.y, v.64, pp.155–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gingras, M.K., MacEachern, J.A. and Pemberton, S.G. (1998) A comparative analysis of the ichnology of wave- and river-dominated allomembers of the Upper Cretaceous Dunvegan Formation: Bull. Canadian Petrol. Geol., v.46, pp.51–73.Google Scholar
  43. Gingras, M.K., Pemberton, S.G., Mendoza, C.A. and Henk, F. (1999) Assessing the anisotropic permeability of Glossifungites surfaces: Petroleum Geoscience, v.5, pp.349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gingras, M.K., MacMillan, B., and Balcom, B.J. (2002) Visualizing the internal physical characteristics of carbonate sediments with magnetic resonance imaging and petrography. Bull. Canadian Petrol. Geol., v.50, pp.363–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gingras, M.K., Mendoza, C., and Pemberton, S.G., 2004. Fossilized wormburrows influence the resource quality of porous media. AAPG Bull., v.88, pp.875–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gingras, M.K., Pemberton, S.G., Henk, F., MacEachern, J.A., Mendoza, C.A, Rostron, B., O’Hare, R. and Spila, M.V. (2007) Applications of ichnology to fluid and gas production in hydrocarbon reservoirs, In: MacEachern, J.A., Bann, K.L., Gingras, M.K. and Pemberton, S.G., (Eds.): Applied Ichnology: SEPM Short Course Notes 52, pp.131–145.Google Scholar
  47. Gingras, M.K., Bann, K.L., MacEachern, J.A. and Pemberton, S.G. (2009) A Conceptual Framework for the Application of Trace Fossils, In: MacEachern, J.A., Bann, K.L., Gingras, M.K. and Pemberton, S.G. (Eds.): Applied Ichnology. Tulsa: Society for Sedimentary Geology, Short Course Notes 52, pp.1–26.Google Scholar
  48. Gingras, M.K., MacEachern, J.A. and Dashtgard, S.E., 2011, Process ichnology and the elucidation of physico-chemical stress: Sediment. Geol., v.237, pp.115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gingras, M.K., Baniak, G., Gordon, J., Hovikoski, J., Konhauser, K.O., La Croix, A., Lemiski, R., Mendoza, C., Pemberton, S.G., Polo, C. and Zonneveld, J.P. (2012) Porosity and permeability in bioturbated sediments. In Trace Fossils as Indicators of Sedimentary Environments. In: Knaust, D. and Bromley, R.G., (Eds.). Developments in Sedimentology 64, pp.835–868.Google Scholar
  50. Goldring, R. (1995) Organisms and substrate: response and effect. In: Bosence, D.W.J. and Allison, P.A. (Eds.): Marine Paleoenvironmental Analysis from Fossils: Geol. Soc. London, Spec, Publ., no.83, pp.151–180.Google Scholar
  51. Gooday, A.J., Turley, C.M. and Allen, J.A. (1990) Responses by benthic organisms to inputs of organic material to the ocean floor: a review: Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., v.331, pp.119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gordon, J.B., Pemberton, S.G., Gingras, M.K. and Konhauser, K.O. (2010) Biogenically enhanced permeability: a petrographic analysis of Macaronichnus segregatus in the lower Cretaceous Bluesky Formation, Alberta, Canada: AAPG Bull., v.94, pp.1779–1795.Google Scholar
  53. Gust, G., and Harrison, J.T. (1981) Biological pumps at the sediment-water interface: mechanistic evaluation of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus mackayi and its irrigation pattern: Marine Biology, v.64, pp.71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hantzschel, W. (1975) Trace fossils and problematica. In: Teichert, C. (Ed.): Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part W. Miscellanea: Boulder, Colorado, and Lawrence, Kansas, Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 269 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Herringshaw, L.G., Sherwood, O. and Mcllroy, D. (2010) Ecosystem engineering by bioturbating polychaetes in event bed microcosms: Palaios, v.25, pp.46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hickey, J.J. and Henk, B. (2007) Lithofacies Summary of the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Mitchell 2 T.P. Sims Well, Wise County, Texas. AAPG Bull. 91, no.4, pp.437–443.Google Scholar
  57. Hovikoski, J., Lemiski, R., Gingras, M. K., Pemberton, S.G. and MacEachern, J.A. (2008) Ichnology and sedimentology ofa mud-dominated deltaic coast: Upper Cretaceous AldersonMember(Lea Park Formation), western Canada: Jour. Sediment. Res., v.78, no.12, pp.803–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Howard, J.D. (1972) Trace fossils as criteria for recognizing shorelines in stratigraphic record: Recognition of ancient sedimentary environments, In: Hamblin, W.K., (Ed.): Recognition of Ancient Sedimentary Environments: SEPM Spec. Publ., no.16, pp.215–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Howell, J.A, Skorstad, A., MacDonald, A., Fordham, A., Flint, S., Fjellvoll, B. and Manzocchi, T., 2008, Sedimentological parameterization of shallowmarine reservoirs: Petroleum Geoscience, v. 14, pp. 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jorgensen, B.B. and Postgate, J.R., 1982, Ecology of the bacteria of the sulfur cycle with special reference to anoxic-oxic interface environments: Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 298, pp. 543–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Knaust, D., 2009. Ichnology as a tool in carbonate reservoir characterization: a case study from the Permian-Triassic Khuff formation in the Middle East: GeoArabia, v. 14, pp. 17–38.Google Scholar
  62. La Croix, A.D., Gingras, M.K., Pemberton, S.G., Mendoza, C.A., MacEachern, J.A. and Lemiski, R.T., 2013. Biogenically enhanced reservoir properties in the Medicine Hat gas field, Alberta, Canada. Marine and Petroleum Geology 43, pp. 464–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lemiski, R.T., Hovikoski, D.J., Pemberton, S.G., and Gingras, M.K., 2011. Sedimentological ichnological and reservoir characteristics of the lowpermeability, gas-charged Alderson member (Hatton gas field, southwest Saskatchewan): Implications for resource development. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 59, pp. 27–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Loucks, R.G. and Ruppel, S.C., 2007. Mississippian Barnett Shale: Lithofacies and Depositional Setting of a Deep-Water Shale-Gas Succession in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas. AAPG Bulletin 91, no. 4, pp. 579–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacEachern, J.A., Pemberton, S.G., Gingras, M.K., Bann, K.L. and Dafoe, L.T., 2007. Uses of Trace Fossils in Genetic Stratigraphy, In: Miller, W. II (Ed.): Trace Fossils: Concepts, Problems, Prospects. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 110–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Macquaker, J.H.S., Bentley, S.J. and Bohacs, K.M., 2010a. Wave-enhanced sediment gravity flows and mud dispersal across continental shelves: reappraising sediment transport processes operating in ancient mudstone successions: Geology, v. 38, pp. 947–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Macquaker, J.H.S., Keller, M. and Davies, S.J., 2010b. Algal blooms and “marine snow”: mechanisms that enhance preservation of organic carbon in ancient fine-grained sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 80, pp. 934–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mangano, M.G., and Buatois, L.A., 2004. Ichnology of Carboniferous tideinfluenced environments and tidal fiat variability in the North American Midcontinent, In: Mcllroy, D., (Ed.): The Application of Ichnology to Palaeoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 228, pp. 157–178.Google Scholar
  69. Martin, M.A. and Pollard, J.E., 1996. The role of trace fossil (ichnofabric) analysis in the development of depositional models for the Upper Jurassic Fulmar Formation of the Kittiwake Field (Quadrant 21 UKCS). In: Hurst, A., Johnson, H.D., Burley, S.D., Canham, A.C. and Mackertich, D.S. (Eds.): Geology of the Humber Group: Central Graben and Moray Firth, UKCS: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 1l4, pp. 163–183.Google Scholar
  70. Martinius, A.W., Kaas, I., Ness, A., Helgesen, G., Kjaerefjord, J.M., and Keith, D.A., 2001. Sedimentology of the heterolithic and tide-dominated Tilje Formation (Early Jurassic, Halten Terrace, offshore nid-Norway). In: Martinsen, O.J., Dreyer, T., (Eds.): Sedimentary Environments Offshore Norway - Paleozoic to Recent Norwegian Petroleum Foundation Special Publication 10, pp. 103–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McAlpine, K. D. (1990) Mesozoic stratigraphy, sedimentary evolution, and petroleum potential of the Jeanne d’Arc Basin, Grand Banks of Newfoundland: Geol. Surv. Canada, v.89–17, p.50.Google Scholar
  72. Mcllroy, D. (2004a) A review of ichnological concepts, methodologies, applications and frontiers, In: Mcllroy, D. (Ed.): The Application of Ichnology to Palaeoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., no.228, pp. 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mcllroy, D. (2004b) Ichnofabrics and sedimentary facies of a tide-dominated delta; Jurassic Ile Formation of Kristin Field, Haltenbanken, off shore mid-Norway, In: Mcllroy, D. (Ed.): The Application of Ichnology to Palaeoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis: Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., no.228, pp.237–272.Google Scholar
  74. Mcllroy, D. (2004c) The Application of Ichnology to Palaeoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., no.228, 479p.Google Scholar
  75. Mcllroy, D., 2007, Lateral variability in shallow marine ichnofabrics: implications for the ichnofabric analysis method: Jour. Geol. Soc. London, v.164, pp.359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mcllroy, D. (2008) Ichnological analysis: The common ground between ichnofacies workers and ichnofabric analysts: Palaeogeo., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoeco., v.270, pp.332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mcllroy, D., Flint, S., Howell, J.A. and Timms, N., 2005. Sedimentology of the tide dominated Jurassic Lajas Formation, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, In: Veiga, G.D., Spalletti, L.A., Howell, J.A. and Schwarz, E., (Eds.): The Neuquén Basin, Argentina; a case study in sequence stratigraphy and basin dynamics. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., v.252, pp.83–107.Google Scholar
  78. Nickell, L.A. and Atkinson, R.J.A. (1995) Functional morphology of burrows and trophic modes of three thalassinidean shrimp species, and a new approach to the classification of thalassinidean burrow morphology: Marine Ecology Progress Series, v.128, pp.181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nittrouer, C.A., and Wright, L.D. (1994) Transport of particles across continental shelves. Rev. Geophys., v.32, pp.85–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Brien, N.R. (1987) The Effects of Bioturbation on the Fabric of Shale. Jour. Sediment. Petrol., v.57, no.3, pp.449–455.Google Scholar
  81. Odelugo, L.N., Abifade, O.O., and Ijomah, K.A. (2016) Bioturbation: It’s effect on reservoir quality. International Journal of Science Inventions Today, v.5 (3), pp. 248–260.Google Scholar
  82. Pemberton, S.G., Frey, R.W., Ranger, M.J. and MacEachern, J.A. (1992) The conceptual framework of ichnology; Applications of ichnology to petroleum exploration; a core workshop: SEPM Core Workshop Notes 17, pp.1–32.Google Scholar
  83. Pemberton, S.G., MacEachern, J.A. and Saunders, T.D.A. (2004) Stratigraphic Applications of Substrate-Specific Ichnofacies: Delineating Discontinuities in the Rock Record, In: Mcllroy, D. (Ed.): The Application of Ichnology to Paleoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis, London. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., v.228, pp.29–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pemberton, S.G. and Gingras, M.K. (2005) Classification and Characterizations of Biogenically Enhanced Permeability. AAPG Bull., 89, no.11, pp.1493–1517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pemberton, S.G., MacEachern, J.A., Gingras, M.K. and Saunders, T.D.A., 2008. Biogenic Chaos: Cryptobioturbation and the Work of Sedimentologically Friendly Organisms. Palaeogeo. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoeco., v.270, no.3–4, pp.273–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pickerill, R.K., and Brenchley, P.J. (1991) Benthic macrofossils as paleoenvironmental indicators in marine siliciclastic facies: Geoscience Canada, v.18, pp.119–138.Google Scholar
  87. Pollard, L.E., Goldring, R. and Buck, S.G. (1993) Ichnofabrics containing Ophiomorpha: significance in shallow-water facies interpretation. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, v.150, pp.149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pryor, W.A. (1975) Biogenic sedimentation and alteration of argillaceous sediments in shallow marine environments: GSA Bull., v.86, pp.1244–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Qi, Y. (1998) Relations between bioturbation structures and petrophysical properties of Donghe sandstone reservoirs in central Tarim. Oil and Gas Geol., v.4, pp.318–320.Google Scholar
  90. Qi, Y., Hu, B., and Zhang, G. (2000) The influence of bioturbation structures containing Ophiomorpha on petrophysical properties of Donghe sandstone reservoir in central Tarim Basin, China (abs.). 31st Internat. Geol. Congr.Google Scholar
  91. Reading, H.G., and Collinson, J.D. (1996) Clastic coasts. In: Reading, H.G., (Ed.): Sedimentary Environments and Facies. Oxford, Blackwell Science, pp.154–231.Google Scholar
  92. Savrda, C.E., and Bottjer, D.J. (1991) Oxygen-related biofacies in marine strata: an overview and update, In: Tyson, R.Y. and Pearson, T.H. (Eds.): Modern and ancient continental shelf anoxia. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., no.58, pp.201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Seilacher, A. (1964) Sedimentological classification and nomenclature of trace fossils: Sedimentology, v.3, pp.253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Seilacher, A. (1967a) Bathymetry of trace fossils: Marine Geol., v.5, pp.413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Seilacher, A. (1967b) Fossil behavior: Scientific American, v.217, pp.72–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Seilacher, A., 1978, Use of trace fossil assemblages for recognizing depositional environments. In: Basan, P.B. (Ed.): Trace Fossil Concepts: SEPM Short Course Notes 5, pp.175–201.Google Scholar
  97. Selley, R.C. (1997) Elements of Petroleum Geology. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  98. Sen, S., Das, N. and Maiti, D. (2016) Facies analysis and depositional model of Late Permian Raniganj Formation: Study from Raniganj Coal bed methane block, India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.88 (4), pp. 503–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith, L.B., Eberli, G.P., Masaferro, J.L. and Al-Dhahab, S. (2003) Discrimination of Effective from Ineffective Porosity in Heterogeneous Cretaceous Carbonates, AL Ghubar Field, Oman. AAPG Bull. 87, no.9, pp.1509–1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Saller, A.H., and Yaremko, K. (1994) Dolomitization and porosity development in the middle and upper Wabamun Group, Southeast Peace River Arch, Alberta, Canada. AAPG Bull. 78, pp.1406–1430.Google Scholar
  101. Spila, M. V., Pemberton, S.G., Rostron, B., and Gingras, M.K. (2007) Biogenic textural heterogeneity, fluid flow andhydrocarbon production: Bioturbated facies, Ben NevisFormation, Hibernia field, offshore Newfoundland. In MacEachern, J.A., Bann, K.L., Gingras, M.K., and Pemberton, G. S. (Eds.): Applied ichnology: SEPM Short Course Notes 52, p.363–380.Google Scholar
  102. Suchanek, T. (1985) Thalassinid shrimp burrows: ecological significance of species specific architecture: Proc. 5th Internat. Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, v.5, pp.205–210.Google Scholar
  103. Swinbanks, D.O., and Luternauer, J.L. (1987) Burrow distribution of Thalassinidean shrimp on a Fraser Delta tidal flat, British Columbia: Jour. Paleont., v.61, pp.315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taylor, A.M. and Gawthorpe, R.L. (1993) Application of Sequence Stratigraphy and Trace Fossil Analysis to Reservoir Description: Examples from the Jurassic of the North Sea. In: Parker, J.R. (Ed.). Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe. Proc. 4th Conference, London. The Geological Society, pp.317–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Taylor, A.M. and Goldring, R. (1993) Description and Analysis of Bioturbation and Ichnofabric. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, v.150, no.1, pp.141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Taylor, A.M., Goldring, R. and Gowland, S. (2003) Analysis and application of ichnofabrics: Earth Sci. Rev., v.60, pp.227–259.Google Scholar
  107. Tonkin, N.S., Mcllroy, O., Meyer, R. and Moore-Turpin, A. (2010) Bioturbation influence on reservoir quality: a case study from the Cretaceous Ben Nevis Formation, Jeanne d’Arc Basin, offshore Newfoundland, Canada. AAPG Bull., v.94, pp.1059–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Walker R.G. and James, N.P. (1992) Facies models: response to sea level change: St John’s, Geol. Assoc. Canada, 454pp.Google Scholar
  109. Wetzel, A. and Uchman, A. (2001) Sequential colonization of muddy turbidites in the Eocene Beloveza Formation, Carpanthians, Poland: Palaeogeo., Palaeoclimat. Palaeoeco, v.168, pp.171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wheatcroft, R.A. (1990) Preservation potential of sedimentary event layers. Geology, v. 18, pp. 843–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wheatcroft, R.A. and Drake, D.E. (2003) Post-depositional alteration and preservation of sedimentary event layers on continental margins; the role of episodic sedimentation: Marine Geol., v.199, pp.123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Worden, R.H. and Burley, S.D. (2003) Sandstone diagenesis: from sand to stone. In: Burley, S.D., Worden, R.H. (Eds.), Clastic Diagenesis: Recent and Ancient. Internat. Assoc. Sedimentologists, v.4. Blackwells, Oxford, pp.3–44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology & GeophysicsIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpur, West MidnaporeIndia
  2. 2.Geologix LimitedMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations