The Raniganj Formation (late Permian) forms the uppermost economic coal-bearing unit of the Gondwana succession. The dominant facies interpreted from analysis of cores from the Raniganj formation are classified as Sandstone dominated facies, Sandstone - shale heterolith facies, Shale facies and Coal facies. The natural Gamma response of Raniganj Formation shows predominance of repetitive fining upwards cycles. Integration of core analysis and geophysical log data of the Raniganj formation indicates meandering fluvial environment. The lower part of Raniganj Formation is channel dominated which corresponds to thick amalgamated sand bodies while the upper part represent overbank shows predominance of channel avulsion indicating a gradual change in accommodation space. Five major fining upward depositional sequences, bounded by sub-aerial unconformities (sequence boundaries) have been dentified in Raniganj formation, based on changes in depositional style that are correlated regionally. Each sequence comprises of Low accommodation system tract (LAST) at base and high accommodation system tract (HAST) at top. LAST is characterized by vertically stacked, multistory amalgamated channel sandstone dominated facies, while floodplain dominated facies characterize HAST. The coal seams deposited in LAST are thicker and relatively more continuous than the frequent thin seams of HAST. Such facies distribution study would be helpful for the development strategy for CBM blocks based on production priority.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Allen, J.R.L. (1970) Studies in fluviatile sedimentation: a comparison of fining-upwards cyclothems with special reference to coarse-member composition and interpretation. Jour. Sediment. Petrol., v.40, pp.298–323.
Blum, M.D. and Törnqvist, T.E. (2000) Fluvial responses toclimate and sea-level change: a review and look forward. Sedimentology, v.7, pp.2–48.
Boyd, R., Diessel, C.F.K., Wadsworth, J., Leckie, D., and Zaitlin, B.A. (2000). Organization of non-marine stratigraphy. In: R. Boyd, C.F.K. Diessel, S. Francis (Eds.), Advances in the study of the Sydney Basin. Proceedings of the 34th Newcastle Symposium, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia, pp.1–14.
Bridge, J.S. (1984) Large-scale facies sequences in alluvial overbank environments. Jour. Sediment. Petrol., v.54, pp.583–588.
Bridge J.S. (1993) Description and interpretation of fluvial deposits: a critical perspective. Sedimentology, v.40, pp.801–810.
Bridge, J.S. and Tye, R.S. (2000) Interpreting the dimensions of ancient fluvial channel bars, channels, and channel belts from wireline-logs and cores: American Assoc. Petroleum Geol. Bull., v.84, pp.1205–1228 [includes erratum].
Cant, D.J. and Walker, R.G. (1976) Development of a braidedfluvial facies model for the Devonian Battery Point Sandstone, Quebec. Canadian Jour. Earth Sci., v.13, pp.102–119.
Casshyap, S.M. and Tewari, R.C. (1984) Fluvial models of the Lower Permian Gondwana coal measures of Koel-Damodar and Son-Mahanadi basins, India. In: Rahamani, R.A. & Flores, R.M. (Eds.), Sedimentology of Coal and Coal Bearing Sequences. Spec. Publ. Internat. Assoc., Sedimentologists, v.7, pp.121–147; Oxford.
Catuneanu, O., Galloway, W.E., Kendall, C. G. St. C, Miall, A.D., Posamentier, H.W., Strasser, A. and Tucker, M.E. (2011) Sequence Stratigraphy: Methodology and Nomenclature. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, v.44/3, pp.173–245, Stuttgart.
Collison, J.D. (1978) Vertical Sequence and sand body shape in alluvial sequences.–In: Miall, A.D. (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology. Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geol., v.5, pp.577–586.
Ghosh, S.C., Nandi, A., Ahmed, G. and Roy, D.K. (1996) Study of Permo–Triassic boundary in Gondwana sequence of Raniganj Basin. Proc. IXth International Gondwana Symposium. Oxford and IBH Pub., New Delhi, Calcutta, pp.195–206.
Jackson, R.G. (1978) Preliminary evaluation of lithofacies models for meandering alluvial streams. In: A.D. Miall (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology. Can. Soc. Petrol. Geol. Mere., v.5, pp.543–576.
Johnson, J.G., Murphy, M. A. (1984) Time-rock model for Siluro-Devonian continental shelf, western United States. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., v.95, pp.1349–1359.
Loon, A.J. Van, (2009) Soft-sediment deformation structures in siliciclastic sediments: an overview. Geologos, v.15(1), pp.3–55.
Lunt, I.A., Bridge, J.S. and Tye, R.S. (2004) A quantitative, threedimensional model of gravelly braided rivers. Sedimentology, v.51, pp.377–414.
Opluštil, S., Martínek, K. and Tasáryová, Z. (2005) Facies and architectural analysis of fluvial deposits of the Nýøany Member and the Týnec Formation (Westphalian D–Barruelian) in the Kladno-Rakovník and Pilsen basins, Bull. Geosci., v.80(1), pp.45–66.
Posamentier, H.W. and Allen, G. P. (1999) Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy: concepts and applications. SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, no.7, 210p.
Posamentier, H.W. and Vail, P.R. (1988) Eustatic controls on clastic deposition. II. Sequence and systems tract models. In: Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H.W., Ross, C. A., Van Wagoner, J. C. (Eds.), Sea Level Changes–An Integrated Approach. SEPM Spec. Publ., v.42, pp.125–154.
Reading, H.G. (1986) (ed.) Sedimentary Environments and Facies. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 557p.
Rust, B.R. (1972) Structure and process in a braided river. Sedimentology, v.18, pp.221–246.
Rust, B.R. (1978) A classification of alluvial channel systems. In. Miall AD, Fluvial Sedimentology, Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geol. Mem., v.5, pp.187–198.
Selley, R.C. (1978b) Concepts and methods of subsurface facies analysis. Short course and methods of subsurfaces facies analysis. Short course lecture note series, No.6. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 80p.
Sen, S. and Banerjee, S. (2015) Identifying Relationship Amongst Vitrinite/Inertinite Ratio (V/I), Cleat Parameters, Vitrinite Reflectance, O/C Ratio and Permeability of Coal Seams and V/I Ratio as Exploration Tool: Study from Raniganj Coal Bed Methane Block, Essar Oil Limited, India, Petroleum Geosciences: Indian Contexts (Ed. S. Mukherjee), Springer Geology, pp.205–217.
Shanley, K.W., Mccabe, P. J. (1994) Perspectives on the sequence stratigraphy of continental strata. AAPG Bull., v.78, pp.544–568.
Suwarna, N. and Hermant, B. (2007) Berau coal in East Kalimantan; Its petrographics characteristics and depositional environment. Jour. Geol. Indonesia, v.2(4), pp.191–206.
Tye, R.S. (1991) Fluvial-sandstone reservoirs of the Travis Peak Formation, East Texas Basin. In: A.D. Miall and N. Tyler (Eds.), The Three-Dimensional Facies Architecture of Terrigenous Clastic Sediments and Its Implications for Hydrocarbon Discovery and Recovery. SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, v.3, pp.172–188.
Vanwagoner, J. C. (1995) Sequence Stratigraphy and Marine to Nonmarine Facies Architecture of Foreland Basin Strata, Book Cliffs, Utah, U.S.A. In: J.C. Van Wagoner and G.T. Bertram (Eds.), Sequence Stratigraphy of Foreland Basin Deposits. AAPG Mem., v.64, pp.137–223.
Van Wagoner, J. C., Mitchum, R. M., Posamentier, H.W., Vail, P. R. (1987) An overview of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions. In: A.W. Bally, (Ed.), Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy, volume 1. AAPG Studies in Geology v.27, pp.11–14.
Van Wagoner, J. C., Posamentier, H.W., Mitchum, R. M., Vail, P. R., Sarg, J. F., Loutit, T. S., Hardenbol, J. (1988) An overview of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions. In: Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H.W., Ross, C. A., Van Wagoner, J. C. (Eds.), Sea Level Changes–An Integrated Approach. SEPM Spec. Publ., v.42, pp.39–45.
Van Wagoner, J. C., Mitchum R. M., Campion, K. M., Rahmanian, V. D. (1990) Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy in well logs, core, and outcrops: concepts for high resolution correlation of time and facies. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Methods in Exploration Series, no.7, 55p.
Walker, R.G. and Cant, D.J. (1984) Sandy Fluvial System, In: Facies Models, Geoscience Canada, reprint Series, 1: 71–79; Ottawa.
About this article
Cite this article
Sen, S., Das, N. & Maiti, D. Facies analysis and depositional model of late Permian Raniganj formation: Study from Raniganj coal bed methane block. J Geol Soc India 88, 503–516 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-016-0513-7
- Depositional model
- Facies analysis
- Coal bed methane (CBM)
- Raniganj coal field
- West Bengal