Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 745–754 | Cite as

Sequence Stratigraphic Model of Middle Permian Barakar Formation from a Marginal Gondwana Basin, India

  • Joyjit Dey
  • Souvik Sen


Gondwana deposits are extensively found across the continents. Here we study the Middle Permian Barakar Formation from the marginal Gondwana Basin, eastern India, being deposited in a normal fault setting. Availability of extensive cores as well as geophysical log suites (gamma-resistivity-density from drilled wells) from the study area helped us achieving high resolution interpretation. Core study identifies fluvial sedimentary architectures, which were correlated with the geophysical logs and modeled field-wide to understand vertical and horizontal facies disposition. The facies analysis has been used to establish a sequence stratigraphic model of the cyclic Barakar deposition. Four major fining upward depositional sequences were identified, each sequence comprises of low accommodation system tract (LAST) at base and high accommodation system tract (HAST) at top. LAST is characterized by vertically stacked, multistory amalgamated channel sandstone dominated facies, while floodplain dominated facies characterizes HAST, reflecting a gradual shift from braided to meandering depositional system from bottom to top of each cycle. Study reveals depocenter to be in the western part, supported by eastward thinning of sediment packets, all being deposited in a half-graben setting.

Key words

fluvial sequence stratigraphy Gondwana sediment Middle Permian Barakar Formation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Authors thank Dr. Jun Xiao, editor and Ge Yao from editorial office, Journal of Earth Science for their timely communication and support. Constructive reviews and suggestions by two anonymous reviewers are greatly appreciated, as it helped in the betterment of the manuscript. Authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to Coal India Ltd., for providing the core and geophysical log dataset and permission to publish this work. Authors are thankful to Geologix Limited for providing access to core log and X-section modules, GEO Suite of software which has been instrumental in preparing the graphic logs and well correlation plots. JD expresses his sincere gratitude to Sabur Ali (Deputy Manager, CIL) and Priyankar Upadhyay (Assistant Manager, CIL) for their suggestions and help while preparing this manuscript. The views and interpretations presented in this paper are solely of authors’ and do not necessarily reflect those of Coal India Limited and Geologix Limited. The final publication is available at Springer via

References Cited

  1. Adams, M. M., Bhattacharya, J. P., 2005. No Change in Fluvial Style across a Sequence Boundary, Cretaceous Blackhawk and Castlegate Formations of Central Utah, U.S.A.. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 75(6): 1038–1051. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, J. R. L., 1970. Studies in Fluviatile Sedimentation: A Comparison of Fining–Upwards Cyclothems, with Special Reference to Coarse–Member Composition and Interpretation. SEPM Journal of Sedimentary Research, 40: 298–323. Google Scholar
  3. Allen, J. R. L., 1978. Studies in Fluviatile Sedimentation: An Exploratory Quantitative Model for the Architecture of Avulsion–Controlled Alluvial Suites. Sedimentary Geology, 21(2): 129–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum, M. D., Törnqvist, T. E., 2000. Fluvial Responses to Climate and Sea–Level Change: A Review and Look Forward. Sedimentology, 47: 2–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyd, R., Diessel, C. F. K., Wadsworth, J., et al., 2000. Organization of Non–Marine Stratigraphy. In: Boyd, R., Diessel, C. F. K., Francis, S., eds., Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin. Proceedings of the 34th Newcastle Symposium, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia. 1–14Google Scholar
  6. Cant, D. J., Walker, R. G., 1976. Development of a Braided–Fluvial Facies Model for the Devonian Battery Point Sandstone, Québec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 13(1): 102–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casshyap, S. M., Tewari, R. C., 1984. Fluvial Models of the Lower Permian Gondwana Coal Measures of Koel–Damodar and Son–Mahanadi Basins, India. In: Rahamani, R. A., Flores, R. M., eds., Sedimentology of Coal and Coal Bearing Sequences. International Association Sedimentologists (Special Publication), 7: 121–147Google Scholar
  8. Catuneanu, O., 2006. Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 246–253Google Scholar
  9. Catuneanu, O., Abreu, V., Bhattacharya, J. P., et al., 2009. Towards the Standardization of Sequence Stratigraphy. Earth–Science Reviews, 92: 1–33Google Scholar
  10. Catuneanu, O., Galloway, W. E., Kendall, C. G. St. C., et al., 2011. Sequence Stratigraphy: Methodology and Nomenclature. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 44(3): 173–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collinson, J. D., 1978. Vertical Sequence and Sand Body Shape in Alluvial Sequences. In: Miall, A. D., ed., Fluvial Sedimentology. Canadian Soc. Petrol. Geol., 5: 577–586Google Scholar
  12. Currie, B. S., 1997. Sequence Stratigraphy of Nonmarine Jurassic–Cretaceous Rocks, Central Cordilleran Foreland–Basin System. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 109(9): 1206–1222.<1206:ssonjc>;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dey, J., Sen, S., Bhattacharjee, S., 2017. Geophysical Log Based Coal Characterization of Middle Permian Barakar Formation from North Karanpura Coal Field, India. Journal Geological Society of India, Springer (in Press)Google Scholar
  14. Ethridge, F. G., Wood, L. J., Schumm, S. A., 1998. Cyclic Variables Controlling Fluvial Sequence Development: Problems and Perspectives. In: Shanley, K. W., McCabe, P. J., eds., Relative Role of Eustasy, Climate, and Tectonism in Continental Rocks, SEPM Spec. Publ. 59, SEPM, Tulsa. 17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Galloway, W. E., Hobday, D. K., 1996. Terrigenous Clastic Depositional Systems, Application to Fossil Fuel and Groundwater Resources. Springer–Verlag, Berlin. 489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghosh, S. C., 2002. The Raniganj Coal Basin: An Example of an Indian Gondwana Rift. Sedimentary Geology, 147(1/2): 155–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghosh, S. C., Nandi, A., Ahmed, G., et al., 1996. Study of Permo–Triassic Boundary in Gondwana Sequence of Raniganj Basin. In: Proceedings IXth International Gondwana Symposium. Oxford and IBH Publisher, New Delhi. 195–206Google Scholar
  18. Holbrook, J., Scott, R. W., Oboh–Ikuenobe, F. E., 2006. Base–Level Buffers and Buttresses: A Model for Upstream Versus Downstream Control on Fluvial Geometry and Architecture within Sequences. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 76(1): 162–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jackson, R. G., 1978. Preliminary Evaluation of Lithofacies Models for Meandering Alluvial Streams. In: Miall, A. D., ed., Fluvial Sedimentology. Can. Soc. Petrol. Geol. Mere., 5: 543–576Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, J. G., Murphy, M. A., 1984. Time–Rock Model for Siluro–Devonian Continental Shelf, Western United States. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 95(11): 1349–1359.<1349:tmfscs>;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Knighton, A. D., 1998. Fluvial Forms and Processes: A New Perspective. Arnold, London. 383Google Scholar
  22. Leeder, M. R., 1996. Sedimentary Basins: Tectonic Recorders of Sediment Discharge from Drainage Catchments. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 22(3): 229–237.<229::aid-esp750>;2-f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mackey, S. D., Bridge, J. S., 1995. Three–Dimensional Model of Alluvial Stratigraphy: Theory and Applications. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 65(1b): 7–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mendhe, V. A., Kamble, A. D., Bannerjee, M., et al., 2016. Evaluation of Shale Gas Reservoir in Barakar and Barren Measures Formations of North and South Karanpura Coalfields, Jharkhand. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 88(3): 305–316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murray, A. B., Paola, C., 1994. A Cellular Model of Braided Rivers. Nature, 371(6492): 54–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Opluštil, S., Martínek, K., Tasáryová, Z., 2005. Facies and Architectural Analysis of Fluvial Deposits of the Nýrany Member and the Týnec Formation (Westphalian D–Barruelian) in the Kladno–Rakovník and Pilsen Basins. Bulletin of Geosciences, 80(1): 45–66Google Scholar
  27. Posamentier, H. W., Allen, G. P., 1999. Siliciclastic Sequence Stratigraphy: Concepts and Applications. SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, 7: 210Google Scholar
  28. Posamentier, H. W., Vail, P. R., 1988. Eustatic Controls on Clastic Deposition: II. Sequence and Systems Tract Models. In: Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., Posamentier, H. W., et al., eds., Sea Level Changes: An Integrated Approach. SEPM (Spec. Publ.), 42: 125–154Google Scholar
  29. Priyadarshi, N., 2004. Distribution of Arsenic in Permian Coals of North Karanpura Coalfield, Jharkhand. Journal Geological Society of India, 63(5): 533–536Google Scholar
  30. Reading, H. G., 1986. Sedimentary Environments and Facies. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 557Google Scholar
  31. Rhee, C. W., 2006. Conceptual Problems and Recent Progress in Fluvial Sequence Stratigraphy. Geosciences Journal, 10(4): 433–443. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rust, B. R., 1972. Structure and Process in a Braided River. Sedimentology, 18(3/4): 221–245. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sen, S., Banerjee, S., 2015. Identifying Relationship amongst Vitrinite/Inertinite Ratio (V/I), Cleat Parameters, Vitrinite Reflectance, O/C Ratio and Permeability of Coal Seams and V/I Ratio as Exploration Tool: Study from Raniganj Coal Bed Methane Block, Essar Oil Limited, India. In: Mukherjee, S., ed., Petroleum Geosciences: Indian Contexts. Springer Geology, Berlin. 205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sen, S., Das, N., Maiti, D., 2016. Facies Analysis and Depositional Model of Late Permian Raniganj Formation: Study from Raniganj Coal Bed Methane Block. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 88(4): 503–516. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shanley, K. W., McCabe, P. J., 1994. Perspectives on the Sequence Stratigraphy of Continental Strata. AAPG Bulletin, 78: 544–568. Google Scholar
  36. Van Wagoner, J. C., 1995. Sequence Stratigraphy and Marine to Nonmarine Facies Architecture of Foreland Basin Strata, Book Cliffs, Utah, U.S.A.. In: Van Wagoner J. C., Bertram, G. T., eds., Sequence Stratigraphy of Foreland Basin Deposits. AAPG Mem., 64: 137–223Google Scholar
  37. Van Wagoner, J. C., Mitchum, R. M. Jr., Campion, K. M., et al., 1990. Siliciclastic Sequence Stratigraphy in Well Logs, Cores, and Outcrops: Concepts for High–Resolution Correlation of Time and Fades. AAPG Methods in Exploration Series, 7: 55Google Scholar
  38. Van Wagoner, J. C., Mitchum, R. M. Jr., Posamentier, H. W., et al., 1987. An Overview of Sequence Stratigraphy and Key Definitions. In: Bally, A. W., ed., Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy: Volume 1. AAPG Studies in Geology, 27: 11–14Google Scholar
  39. Van Wagoner, J. C., Posamentier, H. W., Mitchum, R. M. Jr., et al., 1988. An Overview of Sequence Stratigraphy and Key Definitions. In: Wilgus, C. K., Hastings, B. S., Kendall, C. G. St. C., eds., Sea Level Changes: An Integrated Approach. SEPM (Spec. Publ.), 42: 39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wright, V. P., Marriott, S. B., 1993. The Sequence Stratigraphy of Fluvial Depositional Systems: The Role of Floodplain Sediment Storage. Sedimentary Geology, 86: 203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yang, Y., Peters, M., Cloud, T. A., et al., 2006. Gas Productivity Related to Cleat Volumes Derived From Focused Resistivity Tools in Coalbed Methane (CBM) Fields. Petrophysics, 47(3): 250–257Google Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Coal India Limited, Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI)JharkhandIndia
  2. 2.Geologix LimitedAndheri (E), MumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations