Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 755–777 | Cite as

Correlation of Lopingian to Middle Triassic Palynozones

  • Hendrik NowakEmail author
  • Elke Schneebeli-Hermann
  • Evelyn Kustatscher


Terrestrial floras underwent important changes during the Lopingian (Late Permian), Early Triassic, and Middle Triassic, i.e., before, during, and after the end-Permian mass extinction. An accurate account of these developments requires reliable correlation. Macrofossils of land plants can only provide a low-resolution biostratigraphy, while detailed zonation schemes based on palynomorphs are available for many regions. Their applicability is still limited due to several factors, such as (micro-)floral provincialism, a lack of suitable marker taxa commonly occurring at important boundaries, and in many cases a lack of independent age control. Nevertheless, these palynostratigraphic schemes are regularly used for dating and correlation of successions between different regions. To support such efforts, the biozonation schemes based on palynomorphs from the Lopingian up to and including the Middle Triassic from across the world are summarized and revised. Thus, a consistent correlation of palynozones with the currently recognized international stages is established.

Key words

Permian Triassic land plants palynomorphs biostratigraphy 


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This study was supported by the Euregio Science Fund (call 2014, IPN16: "The end-Permian mass extinction in the Southern and Eastern Alps: extinction rates vs taphonomic biases in different depositional environments") of the Europaregion/Euregio Tirol-Südtirol-Trentino/Tirolo-Alto Adige-Trentino and by SYNTHESYS (access call 4, 2016, GB-TAF-6751: "Diversity changes of spores and pollen during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction"). We thank the two anonymous reviewers, whose suggestions helped us to improve the article substantially. This work is a contribution to IGCP Project 630—"Permian-Triassic climatic and environmental extremes and biotic response". The final publication is available at Springer via

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© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Museum of Nature South TyrolBozen/BolzanoItaly
  2. 2.Paläontologisches Institut und MuseumZürichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Paläontologie und GeobiologieLudwig-Maximilians-Universität and Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und GeobiologieMünchenGermany

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