Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 326–341 | Cite as

A Transgressive Depositional Setting for the Paleogene Shahejie Formation in the Qikou Depression, Eastern China: Inferences from the REE Geochemistry of Carbonates

  • Yang Yang
  • Fuhong Gao
  • Changwei Chen
  • Xiugang Pu
Petroleum Geology


Rare earth element (REE) and Y concentrations, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios were analyzed in 33 carbonate samples from the Paleogene Shahejie Formation in the Qikou depression, eastern China, with the goal of determining depositional environments and post-depositional conditions of carbonates in the region. The REE and Y concentrations were normalized to the post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS) standard. The La*PAAS/Yb*PAAS ratios of 0.35–1.52, where *PAAS indicates values for the PAAS standard, show light REE enrichment and heavy REE depletion in most samples. Values of La*PAAS (0.775–1.284) and Ce*PAAS (0.822–1.224), coupled with a relatively flat REE distribution, indicate that the Shahejie carbonates were deposited in lacustrine environments. Values of Y anomalies (1.009–1.527) and Y/Ho ratios (28.43–45.00) in the Shahejie Formation are greater than those of lacustrine carbonates and closer to those of marine carbonates, indicating that diagenetic fluids were probably influenced by seawater. In the carbonates from Well Kou-42, Eu anomalies (1.171–1.604), 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708 001–0.710 893), and high homogenization temperatures (104–151 ºC) suggest that the carbonates were affected by hydrothermal fluids. The REEs and Sr isotope ratios show that the carbonates from the Shahejie Formation in the Qikou depression were deposited in lacustrine environments, and were influenced by seawater and hydrothermal fluids.

Key words

Paleogene carbonate REE Qikou depression 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank the staff of the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China, for their advice and assistance during isotopic analysis. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41502145), and the Education Department of Jilin Province (Jijiaokehezi, No. 2016-313). The final publication is available at Springer via

References Cited

  1. Alibo, D. S., Nozaki, Y., 2004. Dissolved Rare Earth Elements in the South China Sea: Geochemical Characterization of the Water Masses. Deep Sea Research Part I, 51: 559–576. Scholar
  2. Anderson, S. P., Drever, J. I., Frost, C. D., et al., 2000. Chemical Weathering in the Foreland of a Retreating Glacier. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(7): 1173–1189. Scholar
  3. Bau, M., 1996. Controls on the Fractionation of Isovalent Trace Elements in Magmatic and Aqueous Systems: Evidence from Y/Ho, Zr/Hf, and Lanthanide Tetrad Effect. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 123(3): 323–333. Scholar
  4. Bau, M., Dulski, P., 1999. Comparing Yttrium and Rare Earths in Hydrothermal Fluids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Implications for Y and REE Behaviour during Near-Vent Mixing and for the Y/Ho Ratio of Proterozoic Seawater. Chemical Geology, 155(1/2): 77–90. Scholar
  5. Bau, M., Möller, P., 1993. Rare Earth Element Systematics of the Chemically Precipitated Component in Early Precambrian Iron Formations and the Evolution of the Terrestrial Atmosphere-Hydrosphere-Lithosphere System. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57(10): 2239–2249. Scholar
  6. Bellanca, A., Masetti, D., Neri, R., 1997. Rare Earth Elements in Limestone/Marlstone Couplets from the Albian-Cenomanian Cismon Section (Venetian Region, Northern Italy): Assessing REE Sensitivity to Environmental Changes. Chemical Geology, 141(3/4): 141–152. Scholar
  7. Biswas, S. K., 1982. Rift Basins in Western Margin of India and their Hydrocarbon Prospects with Special Reference to Kutch Basin. AAPG Bulletin, 66(10): 1497–1513. Scholar
  8. Blum, J. D., Gazis, C. A., Jacobson, A. D., et al., 1998. Carbonate Versus Silicate Weathering in the Raikhot Watershed within the High Himalayan Crystalline Series. Geology, 26(5): 411–413.<0411:cvswit>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolhar, R., Hofmann, A., Woodhead, J., et al., 2002. Pb-and Nd-Isotope Systematics of Stromatolitic Limestones from the 2.7 Ga Ngezi Group of the Belingwe Greenstone Belt: Constraints on Timing of Deposition and Provenance. Precambrian Research, 114(3/4): 277–294. Scholar
  10. Bolhar, R., Kamber, B. S., Moorbath, S., et al., 2004. Characterisation of Early Archaean Chemical Sediments by Trace Element Signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 222(1): 43–60. Scholar
  11. Bolhar, R., Van Kranendonk, M. J., 2007. A Non-Marine Depositional Setting for the Northern Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Inferred from Trace Element Geochemistry of Stromatolitic Carbonates. Precambrian Research, 155(3/4): 229–250. Scholar
  12. Bonnot-Courtois, C., Flicoteaux, R., 1989. Distribution of Rare-Earth and Some Trace Elements in Tertiary Phosphorites from the Senegal Basin and Their Weathering Products. Chemical Geology, 75(4): 311–328. Scholar
  13. Brenchley, P. J., Carden, G. A., Hints, L., et al., 2003. High-Resolution Stable Isotope Stratigraphy of Upper Ordovician Sequences: Constraints on the Timing of Bioevents and Environmental Changes Associated with Mass Extinction and Glaciation. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115(1): 89–104.<0089:hrsiso>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brookins, D. G., 1989. Aqueous Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 21(1): 201–225Google Scholar
  15. Chen, S. Z., Gao, X. C., Qiu, D. Z., 1982. A Preliminary Study in China’s Eogene Transitional Facies. Oil & Gas Geology, 3(4): 343–349 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  16. Cotton, L. J., Pearson, P. N., 2011. Extinction of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 311(3/4): 281–296. Scholar
  17. Coxall, H. K., Wilson, P. A., Pälike, H., et al., 2005. Rapid Stepwise Onset of Antarctic Glaciation and Deeper Calcite Compensation in the Pacific Ocean. Nature, 433(7021): 53–57. Scholar
  18. Curtis, C. D., Coleman, M. L., Love, L. G., 1986. Pore Water Evolution during Sediment Burial from Isotopic and Mineral Chemistry of Calcite, Dolomite and Siderite Concretions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50(10): 2321–2334. Scholar
  19. Ding, W. W., Dai, J. X., Chu, F. Y., et al., 2007. Geochemical Characteristics of the Fluid Inclusions in the Gangxi Fault Belt Huanghua Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 23(9): 2287–2295 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  20. Drummond, C. N., Patterson, W. P., Walker, J. C. G., 1995. Climatic Forcing of Carbon-Oxygen Isotopic Covariance in Temperate-Region Marl Lakes. Geology, 23(11): 1031–1034.<1031:cfocoi>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Elderfield, H., 1986. Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 57(1): 71–90 Scholar
  22. Frimmel, H. E., 2009. Trace Element Distribution in Neoproterozoic Carbonates as Palaeoenvironmental Indicator. Chemical Geology, 258(3/4): 338–353. Scholar
  23. Gao, Y. Q., Ou, G. X., Tan, S. Q., et al., 2003. Research on the Charge Times and Stages of Oil and Gas Reservoir in Lower Es1 of Baishuitou Structure at West Slope in Qikou Depression. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 19(2): 359–365 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  24. Gao, Z. Y., 1986. The Tertiary Blind Volcanic Rocks in Huanghua Depression and Their Bearing on Tectonic Setting. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 2(4): 14–30 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Ge, L., Jiang, S. Y., Swennen, R., et al., 2010. Chemical Environment of Cold Seep Carbonate Formation on the Northern Continental Slope of South China Sea: Evidence from Trace and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry. Marine Geology, 277(1/2/3/4): 21–30. Scholar
  26. German, C. R., Elderfield, H., 1990. Application of the Ce Anomaly as a Paleoredox Indicator: The Ground Rules. Paleoceanography, 5(5): 823–833. Scholar
  27. Grandjean, P., Cappetta, H., Michard, A., et al., 1987. The Assessment of REE Patterns and 143Nd/144Nd Ratios in Fish Remains. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 84(2/3): 181–196. Scholar
  28. Haley, B. A., Klinkhammer, G. P., McManus, J., 2004. Rare Earth Elements in Pore Waters of Marine Sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68(6): 1265–1279. Scholar
  29. Han, Y. X., Li, Z., Han, D. L., et al., 2009. REE Characteristics of Matrix Dolomites and Its Origin of Lower Ordovician in Eastern Tabei Area, Tarim Basin. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 25(10): 2405–2416 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Hofmann, A., Bolhar, R., 2007. Carbonaceous Cherts in the Barberton Greenstone Belt and Their Significance for the Study of Early Life in the Archean Record. Astrobiology, 7(2): 355–388. Scholar
  31. James, R. H., Elderfield, H., 1996. Chemistry of Ore-Forming Fluids and Mineral Formation Rates in an Active Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geology, 24(12): 1147–1150.<1147:cooffa>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kamber, B. S., Bolhar, R., Webb, G. E., 2004. Geochemistry of Late Archean Stromatolites from Zimbabwe: Evidence for Microbial Life in Restricted Epicontinental Seas. Precambrian Research, 132(4): 379–399. Scholar
  33. Kamber, B. S., Webb, G. E., 2001. The Geochemistry of Late Archaean Microbial Carbonate: Implications for Ocean Chemistry and Continental Erosion History. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65(15): 2509–2525. Scholar
  34. Komatsubara, J., 2004. Fluvial Architecture and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Eocene to Oligocene Iwaki Formation, Northeast Japan: Channel-Fills Related to the Sea-Level Change. Sedimentary Geology, 168: 109–123. Scholar
  35. Lawrence, M. G., Greig, A., Collerson, K. D., et al., 2006. Rare Earth Element and Yttrium Variability in South East Queensland Waterways. Aquatic Geochemistry, 12(1): 39–72. Scholar
  36. Li, D. L., Tan, X. F., Xia, M. Q., et al., 2010. Sedimentary Characteristics and Genesis of Lacustrine Dolomite in the Fourth Member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag. Fault-Block Oil & Gas Field, 17(4): 418–422 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  37. Li, C. F., Xiao, J. F., 1988. Study on Shahejie Formation’s Paleosalinity in Dongying Basin of Shengli Oilfield by Trace Element. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 6(4): 100–106 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  38. Li, G. J., Chen, J., Ji, J. F., et al., 2007. Global Cooling Forced Increase in Marine Strontium Isotopic Ratios: Importance of Mica Weathering and a Kinetic Approach. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 254(3/4): 303–312. Scholar
  39. Li, M., Lou, Z. H., Zhu, R., et al., 2014. Distribution and Geochemical Characteristics of Fluids in Ordovician Marine Carbonate Reservoirs of the Tahe Oilfield. Journal of Earth Science, 25(3): 486–494. Scholar
  40. Li, S. G., Wu, T., Fang, W. J., et al., 1991. Petroleum Geology of China (Vol. 4) Dagang Oil Field. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing. 1–109 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  41. Li, Y. X., Lu, Z. S., Wang, D., et al., 1997. Study on Terrestrial Trace Fossils and Sedimentary Environment in Liaohe Basin. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing. 1–23 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. MacLeod, K. G., Huber, B. T., 1996. Strontium Isotopic Evidence for Extensive Reworking in Sediments Spanning the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary at ODP Site 738. Geology, 24(5): 463–466.<0463:siefer>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McArthur, J. M., 1994. Recent Trends in Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy. Terra Nova, 6(4): 331–358. Scholar
  44. McArthur, J. M., Howarth, R. J., Bailey, T. R., 2001. Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy: LOWESS Version 3: Best Fit to the Marine Sr-Isotope Curve for 0–509 Ma and Accompanying Look-up Table for Deriving Numerical Age. The Journal of Geology, 109(2): 155–170. Scholar
  45. McArthur, J. M., Walsh, J. N., 1984. Rare-Earth Geochemistry of Phosphorites. Chemical Geology, 47(3/4): 191–220. Scholar
  46. McLennan, S. M., 1989. Rare Earth Elements in Sedimentary Rocks: Influence of Provenance and Sedimentary Processes. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 21(1): 169–200Google Scholar
  47. Michard, A., Albarède, F., 1986. The REE Content of Some Hydrothermal Fluids. Chemical Geology, 55(1/2): 51–60. Scholar
  48. Miller, K. G., Kominz, M. A., Browning, J. V., et al., 2005. The Phanerozoic Record of Global Sea-Level Change. Science, 310(5752): 1293–1298. Scholar
  49. Mills, R. A., Elderfield, H., 1995. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Deposits from the Active TAG Mound, 26°N Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59(17): 3511–3524. Scholar
  50. Nozaki, Y., Lerche, D., Alibo, D. S., et al., 2000. The Estuarine Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements and Indium in the Chao Phraya River, Thailand. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(23): 3983–3994. Scholar
  51. Nozaki, Y., Zhang, J., Amakawa, H., 1997. The Fractionation between Y and Ho in the Marine Environment. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 148(1/2): 329–340. Scholar
  52. Olivarez, A. M., Owen, R. M., 1991. The Europium Anomaly of Seawater:Implications for Fluvial Versus Hydrothermal REE Inputs to the Oceans. Chemical Geology, 92(4): 317–328. Scholar
  53. Palmer, M. R., Edmond, J. M., 1989. The Strontium Isotope Budget of the Modern Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 92(1): 11–26. Scholar
  54. Palmer, M. R., Elderfield, H., 1986. Rare Earth Elements and Neodymium Isotopes in Ferromanganese Oxide Coatings of Cenozoic Foraminifera from the Atlantic Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50(3): 409–417. Scholar
  55. Pandey, D. K., Rajan, S., Pandey, A., 2010. Seismic Imaging of Paleogene Sediments of Kachchh Shelf (Western Indian Margin) and Their Correlation with Sea-Level Fluctuations. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27(6): 1166–1174. Scholar
  56. Piepgras, D. J., Jacobsen, S. B., 1992. The Behavior of Rare Earth Elements in Seawater: Precise Determination of Variations in the North Pacific Water Column. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56(5): 1851–1862. Scholar
  57. Pu, X. G., Zhou, L. H., Xiao, D. Q., et al., 2011. Lacustrine Carbonates in the Southwest Margin of Qikou Sag, Huanghua Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 38(2): 136–144 (in Chinese with English Abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Qiu, S. Y., Lu, B. L., Chen, Y. C., 1994. The Transgression from Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene in the East of China. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 14(1): 97–106 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  59. Ren, L. Y., Lin, G. F., Zhao, Z. Q., et al., 2000. Early Tertiary Marine Transgression in Dongpu Depression. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 39(4): 553–557 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  60. Schmitz, B., Åberg G., Werdelin, L., et al., 1991. 87Sr/86Sr, Na, F, Sr, and La in Skeletal Fish Debris as a Measure of the Paleosalinity of Fossil-Fish Habitats. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 103(6): 786–794.<0786:ssnfsa>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shaw, H. F., Wasserburg, G. J., 1985. Sm-Nd in Marine Carbonates and Phosphates: Implications for Nd Isotopes in Seawater and Crustal Ages. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 49(2): 503–518. Scholar
  62. Shields, G. A., 2007. A Normalised Seawater Strontium Isotope Curve: Possible Implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Weathering Rates and the Further Oxygenation of the Earth. eEarth, 2(2): 35–42. Scholar
  63. Shields, G. A., Webb, G. E., 2004. Has the REE Composition of Seawater Changed over Geological Time?. Chemical Geology, 204(1/2): 103–107. Scholar
  64. Shields, G., Stille, P., 2001. Diagenetic Constraints on the Use of Cerium Anomalies as Palaeoseawater Redox Proxies: An Isotopic and REE Study of Cambrian Phosphorites. Chemical Geology, 175(1/2): 29–48. Scholar
  65. Sholkovitz, E., Shen, G. T., 1995. The Incorporation of Rare Earth Elements in Modern Coral. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59(13): 2749–2756. Scholar
  66. Stille, P., 1992. Nd-Sr Isotope Evidence for Dramatic Changes of Paleocurrents in the Atlantic Ocean during the Past 80 M.y.. Geology, 20(5): 387–390.<0387:nsiefd>;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stille, P., Riggs, S. R., Clauer, N., et al., 1994. Sr and Nd Isotopic Analysis of Phosphorite Sedimentation through one Miocene High-Frequency Depositional Cycle on the North Carolina Continental Shelf. Marine Geology, 117(1/2/3/4): 253–273. Scholar
  68. Stille, P., Steinmann, M., Riggs, S. R., 1996. Nd Isotope Evidence for the Evolution of the Paleocurrents in the Atlantic and Tethys Oceans during the Past 180Ma. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 144(1/2): 9–19. Scholar
  69. Sun, Y., Zhong, J. H., Yuan, X. C., et al., 2008. Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy of Lacustrine Carbonate in the First Member of Shahejie Formation in Huimin Sag. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 29(2): 213–218 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  70. Sun, Y., Zhong, J. H., Yuan, X. C., 2007. Genesis of the Dolostones from the First Member of the Shahejie Formation in the Huimin Depression, Shandong. Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology, 27(3): 78–84 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  71. Sun, Z. C., Yang, F., Zhang, Z. H., et al., 1997. Depositional Environment and Generation of Oil and Gas of Cenozoic Salinized Lakes. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing. 1–338 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  72. Sverjensky, D. A., 1984. Europium Redox Equilibria in Aqueous Solution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 67(1): 70–78. Scholar
  73. Taylor, S. R., McLennan, S. M., 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell, Cambridge. 1–321Google Scholar
  74. Tong, X. G., 1985. Doubts about the Validity of Paleogene Transgression in the Eastern China. Geological Review, 31(3): 261–267 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  75. Van Kranendonk, M. J., Webb, G. E., Kamber, B. S., 2003. Geological and Trace Element Evidence for a Marine Sedimentary Environment of Deposition and Biogenicity of 3.45Ga Stromatolitic Carbonates in the Pilbara Craton, and Support for a Reducing Archaean Ocean. Geobiology, 1(2): 91–108. Scholar
  76. Veizer, J., Ala, D., Azmy, K., et al., 1999. 87Sr/86Sr, Δ13C and Δ18O Evolution of Phanerozoic Seawater. Chemical Geology, 161(1/2/3): 59–88. Scholar
  77. Veizer, J., Hoefs, J., Lowe, D. R., et al., 1989. Geochemistry of Precambrian Carbonates: II. Archean Greenstone Belts and Archean Sea Water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53(4): 859–871. Scholar
  78. Wang, D. R., Zhang, Y. H., 2001. A Study on the Carbonate Cements within Reservoir in the External Metamorphic Belt of the Bohai Bay Oil/Gas-Bearing Region and Its Implications. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 28(2): 40–42 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  79. Webb, G. E., Kamber, B. S., 2000. Rare Earth Elements in Holocene Reefal Microbialites: A New Shallow Seawater Proxy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(9): 1557–1565. Scholar
  80. Wright, J., Schrader, H., Holser, W. T., 1987. Paleoredox Variations in Ancient Oceans Recorded by Rare Earth Elements in Fossil Apatite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(3): 631–644. Scholar
  81. Wu, X. T., Ren, L. Y., 2004. The Tertiary Sea Way and New Reservoir Probe in Dongpu Depression as well as Its Surrounding Basins. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 43(1): 147–154 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  82. Xue, G. G., Gao, J. Z., 2011. Volcanism and Halite Genesis in Shahejie Formation of Paleaogene in Dongpu Depression. Journal of Oil and Gas Technology, 33(1): 53–75 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  83. Yang, Y., Gao, F. H., Pu, X. G., et al., 2013. Changes to Depositional Palaeoenvironments within the Qikou Depression (Bohaiwan Basin, China): Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Lacustrine Carbonates of the Palaeogene Shahejie Formation. International Geology Review, 55(15): 1909–1921. Scholar
  84. Yang, Y., Gao, F. H., Pu, X. G., et al., 2014. REE Characteristics and Genesis of Dolostones from Paleogene Shahejie Formation in Qikou Depression. Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Sciences), 38(2): 1–9 (in Chinese with English Abstract).Google Scholar
  85. Yao, Y. M., Xu, J. L., Shan, H. G., et al., 1992. A Discussion of the Paleogene Transgression in the Jiyang Depression, Shandong Province. Acta Petrolei Sinica, 13(2): 29–34 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  86. Yi, H. S., Lin, J. H., Zhao, X. X., et al., 2008. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements and Origin of Positive Europium Anomaly in Miocene-Oligocene Lacustrine Carbonates from Tuotuohe Basin of Tibetan Plateau. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 26(1): 1–10 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  87. Yu, Z. C., 2010. The Paleogene Thermal Fluid Activities and Their Impact on Clastic Reservoir in Qikou Sag: [Dissertation]. Jilin University, Changchun. 1–121 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  88. Yu, Z., 1982. Discovery of Calcareous Nanofossils in Liaohe Area. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 3: 82 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  89. Zachos, J. C., Quinn, T. M., Salamy, K. A., 1996. High-Resolution (104 Years) Deep-Sea Foraminiferal Stable Isotope Records of the Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition. Paleoceanography, 11(3): 251–266. Scholar
  90. Zhang, G. D., Wang, H. Z., 1987. Transgression and sedimentary environment of Paleogene in Eastern China. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 1–41 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  91. Zhang, J., Nozaki, Y., 1996. Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium in Seawater: ICP-MS Determinations in the East Caroline, Coral Sea, and South Fiji Basins of the Western South Pacific Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60(23): 4631–4644. Scholar
  92. Zhang, Y. X., Li, X. D., Zhang, J., 2000. Basic Pluton and Its Tectonic Setting in Kaladala of West Tianshan Mountain, China. Xinjiang Geology, 18(3): 258–263 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  93. Zhao, C. L., Liu, M. H., 1988. Early Tertiary Microfacies of Sandbody and Diagenesis in Dongpu Depression. Petroleum University Publishing House, Dongying. 15 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  94. Zheng, R. C., Pan, Y. H., Zhao, C., et al., 2013. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Oxfordian Carbonate Rocks in Amu Darya Basin. Journal of Earth Science, 24(1): 42–56. Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Prospecting & Surveying EngineeringChangchun Institute of TechnologyChangchunChina
  2. 2.College of Earth SciencesJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  3. 3.Research Institute of Exploration and DevelopmentDagang Oilfield Company, CNPCTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations