Prostaglandins mediate zymosan-induced sickness behavior in mice
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Previous studies have demonstrated that zymosan, a cell wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induces inflammation in experimental models. However, few studies have evaluated the potential of zymosan to induce sickness behavior, a central motivational state that allows an organism to cope with infection. To determine whether zymosan administration results in sickness behavior, mice were submitted to the forced swim (FST) and open field (OFT) tests 2, 6, and 24 h after treatment with zymosan (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg). Additionally, to evaluate the possible relationship between zymosan-induced sickness behavior and prostaglandin synthesis, mice were pretreated with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and nimesulide (5 mg/kg) and the glucocorticoid drug dexamethasone (1 mg/kg). Zymosan induced time-dependent decreases in locomotor activity in the OFT, and an increase in immobility in the FST, and increased plasma levels of corticosterone at 2 h. Pretreatment with indomethacin, nimesulide, or dexamethasone blocked zymosan-induced behavioral changes in both the FST and OFT at 2 h post administration. These findings confirm previous observations that zymosan induces sickness behavior. Furthermore, our results provide new evidence that prostaglandin synthesis is necessary for this effect, as anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis attenuated zymosan-induced behavioral changes.
KeywordsCyclooxygenase Fungal infection Prostaglandin Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sickness behavior Zymosan
We would like to thank Dr. Lucila L. K. Elias and Dr. José Antunes-Rodrigues from the University of São Paulo for assistance with the hormonal measurements. We also acknowledge the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technical Development (CNPq; #300977/2013-1) and the Research Support Foundation of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG; #APQ-00041-15) for financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
All experiments were conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki regulations addressing the welfare of experimental animals and were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alfenas (#360/2011).
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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