The Journal of Physiological Sciences

, Volume 66, Issue 3, pp 257–264 | Cite as

Treadmill walking in water induces greater respiratory muscle fatigue than treadmill walking on land in healthy young men

  • Yoshihiro Yamashina
  • Hisayo YokoyamaEmail author
  • Nooshin Naghavi
  • Yoshikazu Hirasawa
  • Ryosuke Takeda
  • Akemi Ota
  • Daiki Imai
  • Toshiaki Miyagawa
  • Kazunobu Okazaki
Original Paper


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of walking in water on respiratory muscle fatigue compared with that of walking on land at the same exercise intensity. Ten healthy males participated in 40-min treadmill walking trials on land and in water at an intensity of 60 % of peak oxygen consumption. Respiratory function and respiratory muscle strength were evaluated before and after walking trials. Inspiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly decreased immediately after walking in water, and expiratory muscle strength was significantly decreased immediately and 5 min after walking in water compared with the baseline. The decreases of inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength were significantly greater compared with that after walking on land. In conclusion, greater inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue was induced by walking in water than by walking on land at the same exercise intensity in healthy young men.


Walking in water Walking on land Respiratory function Respiratory muscle strength 



We would like to thank our volunteers for their time and participation in this investigation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Yamashina
    • 1
  • Hisayo Yokoyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nooshin Naghavi
    • 1
  • Yoshikazu Hirasawa
    • 1
  • Ryosuke Takeda
    • 1
  • Akemi Ota
    • 1
  • Daiki Imai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Toshiaki Miyagawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kazunobu Okazaki
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Physiology for Exercise, Graduate School of MedicineOsaka City UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for Urban Health and SportsOsaka City UniversityOsakaJapan

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