Skip to main content
Log in

Dietary quality in rural areas, secondary towns, and cities: Insights from Tanzania

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Food Security Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The nutrition transition has come to the forefront of dietary studies in developing countries. However, how dietary quality in terms of macro- and micronutrient consumption differs between rural and urban regions is yet to be fully understood. This paper uses a dataset with detailed information on food consumption during a two-week period in Tanzania. This allows me to calculate the macro- and micronutrient content of these diets with respect to the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Households living in secondary towns are more likely to fulfil the DRIs for all nutrients, whereas households in Dar es Salaam consume more fat, saturated fat, and sugar, but less protein, fibre, and key micronutrients. The disparities in nutrient consumption between rural areas and secondary towns are partly explained by differences in wealth, educational levels, food prices and food accessibility. A better understanding is needed on the drivers behind dietary patterns in highly urbanized regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

Data Availability

Data used in this paper is publicaly available from the World Bank data repository: World Bank. Survey of Household Welfare and Labour in Tanzania (SHWALITA) 2007-2008. Public Use Dataset.

Notes

  1. Note there are several ways to measure diet diversity. The World Health Organization (2021) recommends a 8-food group indicator for children 6–24 months of age. FAO and USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) proposes a 10-food group indicator to assess women's dietary diversity (FAO, 2016) and a 12-food group indicator for household level analysis (Swindale & Bilinsky, 2006).

  2. Note that my sample does not include several larger cities found in Tanzania, e.g., Arusha (834 000 inhabitants), Mwanza (742 000 inhabitants), Zanzibar (733 000 inhabitants), Mbeya (530 000 inhabitants), Moshi (480 000 inhabitants) and Mbomai (454 000 inhabitants). However, I believe these cities have similar characteristics to Dodoma (270 000 inhabitants) which is included in my “secondary towns” category. Generally, the largest differences are found between cities with less than 1 million inhabitants, and those with over 1 million inhabitants. I expect these effects to be particularly pronounced for Dar es Salaam, with over 5 million inhabitants.

  3. On average the prevalence of undernourishment and child stunting has decreased in the past two decades (Fig. 1), although still high at about 23% and 36% respectively in 2020. These statistics also hide large disparities within the country and between rural and urban areas.

  4. Note that a similar analysis was run using 4 categories: rural, secondary towns, Dodoma, and Dar es Salaam, but the results for Dodoma and other secondary towns were very similar.

  5. 988 households live in rural areas, 304 in secondary towns and 214 in Dar es Salaam. Note that simply adding one category to the rural–urban distinction does not fully reflect the rural–urban continuum. However, distinguishing between secondary towns and large cities is already one step to identifying important differences within urban areas.

  6. The asset index includes whether the household owns a bicycle, a mobile, has a good floor and electricity. These calculations follow methods by Filmer and Pritchett (2001); Sahn and Stifel (2003); Harttgen and Vollmer (2013).

  7. Unfortunately, I am not able to assess intra-household distribution of foods. This means that certain household members may be acquiring more nutrients than others through the consumption of meals away from home.

  8. For example, a bunch of plantains carry a considerable amount of non-edible material and so this is acknowledged and subtracted in the conversion tables.

  9. Previous literature often simplifies food groups even further into representative groups such as cereals, starches, fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products.

  10. For example, I establish whether items from food group “tomatoes, onions, carrots” are a tomato, onion, or carrot and so these three items are disaggregated into three separate categories.

  11. Nutrient specific information collected from Tanzania food composition tables by Lukmanji et al. (2008). MUHAS-TFNC, HSPH, Dar es Salaam Tanzania.

  12. Dietary reference intakes (DRI) include 4 subsets of recommendations. We use the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), determining the average daily dietary nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group, and the tolerable upper intake level, the highest average daily nutrient intake level that likely poses no adverse health risks to almost all individuals in the general population (Otten et al., 2006).

  13. Note that the focus on this paper lies on nutritional requirements and not exact digestive nutrient intake goals. This is due to limited information on bioavailability and food processing.

  14. Nutritional information derives from the Tanzania Food Composition Tables, encompassing key vitamins and minerals. The chosen nutrients reflect and array of key macro- and micronutrients, as well as those commonly under consumed in SSA. To simplify, calories are be referred to as nutrients, although not technically so. Saturated fat, a subcategory of fat, and sugar and fiber, subcategories of carbohydrates, are also be referred to as macronutrients.

  15. Table 7 in the Appendix shows the average consumption in grams per individual food item consumed.

  16. Positive values mean the average household member is consuming more than the DRI, negative values mean the average household member is consuming less than the DRI.

  17. Unfortunately, the SHWALITA data does not contain a detailed price survey at a lower level of aggregation. I am not able to distinguish between rural and urban area prices. However, some regions are highly rural and others highly urban, so it is important to include these food prices as mechanisms.

  18. Note that I am calculating the minimum cost of nutrient adequacy, which typically costs significantly (over 60%) less than ‘healthy’ diets as assessed by for example FAO (2016) and the EAT-Lancet diet. Similar findings are found by e.g., Masters et al. (2018), Headey and Alderman (2019), Hirvonen et al. (2020).

  19. This means that a restaurant or stall should be available to the household within a radius of 3 km at the maximum.

  20. I check the variance inflation factors for all the controls included in my regression to test for multicollinearity. All variance inflation factors are below the “rule of thumb” level of 10, with the highest one falling at 4.17.

References

  • Abdulai, A., & Aubert, D. (2004). A cross-section analysis of household demand for food and nutrients in Tanzania. Agricultural Economics, 31(1), 67–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aberman, N. L., & Roopnaraine, T. (2018). Understanding household preferences on the production, consumption, and sale of nutritious crops. Agriculture, Food Security, and Nutrition in Malawi: Leveraging the Links. IFPRI Food Policy Report. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 30–40.

  • Agarwal, B. (2018). Gender equality, food security and the sustainable development goals. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 34, 26–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alderman, H., & Headey, D. (2018). The timing of growth faltering has important implications for observational analyses of the underlying determinants of nutrition outcomes. PLoS ONE, 13(4), e0195904.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alem, Y., & Söderbom, M. (2012). Household-level consumption in urban Ethiopia: The effects of a large food price shock. World Development, 40(1), 146–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amare, M., Arndt, C., Abay, K. A., & Benson, T. (2020). Urbanization and child nutritional outcomes. The World Bank Economic Review, 34(1), 63–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ameye, H., & De Weerdt, J. (2020). Child health across the rural–urban spectrum. World Development, 130, 104950.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ameye, H., & Swinnen, J. (2019). Obesity, income and gender: The changing global relationship. Global Food Security, 23, 267–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arndt, C., Demery, L., McKay, A., & Tarp, F. (2016). Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania. Growth and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, 238.

  • Barrett, C. B. (2021). Overcoming global food security challenges through science and solidarity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 103(2), 422–447.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beegle, K., De Weerdt, J., Friedman, J., & Gibson, J. (2012). Methods of household consumption measurement through surveys: Experimental results from Tanzania. Journal of Development Economics, 98(1), 3–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhutta, Z. A., Ahmed, T., Black, R. E., Cousens, S., Dewey, K., Giugliani, E., & Shekar, M. (2008). What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. The Lancet, 371(9610), 417–440.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., & Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: Global and regional exposures and health consequences. The Lancet, 371(9608), 243–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bogard, J. R., Andrew, N. L., Farrell, P., Herrero, M., Sharp, M. K., & Tutuo, J. (2021). A typology of food environments in the Pacific region and their relationship to diet quality in Solomon Islands. Foods, 10(11), 2592.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bourne, L. T., Lambert, E. V., & Steyn, K. (2002). Where does the black population of South Africa stand on the nutrition transition? Public Health Nutrition, 5(1a), 157–162.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Burchi, F. (2010). Child nutrition in Mozambique in 2003: The role of mother’s schooling and nutrition knowledge. Economics & Human Biology, 8(3), 331–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Celnik, D., Gillespie, L., & Lean, M. E. J. (2012). Time-scarcity, ready-meals, ill-health and the obesity epidemic. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 27(1), 4–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Choudhury, S., Headey, D. D., & Masters, W. A. (2019). First foods: Diet quality among infants aged 6–23 months in 42 countries. Food Policy, 88, 101762.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cockx, L., Colen, L., & De Weerdt, J. (2018). From corn to popcorn? Urbanization and dietary change: Evidence from rural-urban migrants in Tanzania. World Development, 110, 140–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crozier, S. R., Robinson, S. M., Borland, S. E., & Inskip, H. M. (2006). Dietary patterns in the Southampton Women’s Survey. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(12), 1391–1399.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Davies, J., Hannah, C., Guido, Z., Zimmer, A., McCann, L., Battersby, J., & Evans, T. (2021). Barriers to urban agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy, 103, 101999.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Weerdt, J., Beegle, K., Friedman, J., & Gibson, J. (2016). The challenge of measuring hunger through survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 64(4), 727–758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Debela, B. L., Demmler, K. M., Rischke, R., & Qaim, M. (2017). Maternal nutrition knowledge and child nutritional outcomes in urban Kenya. Appetite, 116, 518–526.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Demmler, K. M., Ecker, O., & Qaim, M. (2018). Supermarket shopping and nutritional outcomes: A panel data analysis for urban Kenya. World Development, 102, 292–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diao, X., Kweka, J., McMillan, M., & Qureshi, Z. (2016). Economic Transformation in Africa from the Bottom up: Macro and Micro Evidence from Tanzania. NBER Working Paper22889.

  • Downs, S. M., Ahmed, S., Fanzo, J., & Herforth, A. (2020). Food environment typology: Advancing an expanded definition, framework, and methodological approach for improved characterization of wild, cultivated, and built food environments toward sustainable diets. Foods, 9(4), 532.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Duflo, E. (2012). Women empowerment and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(4), 1051–1079.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ebrahimi, S., McNaughton, S. A., Leech, R. M., Abdollahi, M., Houshiarrad, A., & Livingstone, K. M. (2020). A comparison of diet quality indices in a nationally representative cross-sectional study of Iranian households. Nutrition Journal, 19(1), 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • FAO, F. (2016). Minimum diet diversity for women: A guide for measurement. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP & WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Repurposing food and agricultural policies to make healthy diets more affordable. Rome, FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

  • Fiedler, J. L. (2013). Towards overcoming the food consumption information gap: Strengthening household consumption and expenditures surveys for food and nutrition policymaking. Global Food Security, 2(1), 56–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. H. (2001). Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data—or tears: An application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography, 38(1), 115–132.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Finaret, A. B., & Masters, W. A. (2019). Beyond calories: The new economics of nutrition. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 11, 237–259.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fotso, J. C. (2007). Urban–rural differentials in child malnutrition: Trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa. Health & Place, 13(1), 205–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garrett, J. L., & Ruel, M. T. (1999). Are determinants of rural and urban food security and nutritional status different? Some Insights from Mozambique. World Development, 27(11), 1955–1975.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibson, M. A., & Mace, R. (2007). Polygyny, reproductive success and child health in rural Ethiopia: Why marry a married man? Journal of Biosocial Science, 39(2), 287–300.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gyimah, S. O. (2009). Polygynous marital structure and child survivorship in sub-Saharan Africa: Some empirical evidence from Ghana. Social Science & Medicine, 68(2), 334–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hannah, C., Davies, J., Green, R., Zimmer, A., Anderson, P., Battersby, J., & Evans, T. P. (2022). Persistence of open-air markets in the food systems of Africa's secondary cities. Cities124, 103608.

  • Harttgen, K., & Vollmer, S. (2013). Using an asset index to simulate household income. Economics Letters, 121(2), 257–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawkes, C. (2008). Dietary implications of supermarket development: A global perspective. Development Policy Review, 26(6), 657–692.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Headey, D. D., & Alderman, H. H. (2019). The relative caloric prices of healthy and unhealthy foods differ systematically across income levels and continents. The Journal of Nutrition, 149(11), 2020–2033.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Henderson, V. (2002). Urban primacy, external costs, and quality of life. Resource and Energy Economics, 24(1–2), 95–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirvonen, K. (2016). Rural–urban differences in children’s dietary diversity in Ethiopia: A Poisson decomposition analysis. Economics Letters, 147, 12–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirvonen, K., Bai, Y., Headey, D., & Masters, W. A. (2020). Affordability of the EAT–Lancet reference diet: A global analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 8(1), e59–e66.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, J., & Bouis, H. E. (2004). Structural changes in the demand for food in Asia (Vol. 11). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

  • Huang, J., & David, C. C. (1993). Demand for cereal grains in Asia: The effect of urbanization. Agricultural Economics, 8(2), 107–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IFPRI. Global Nutrition Report (2016). Washington DC: IFPRI, 2016.

  • Ijumba, C., Snyder, J., Tschirley, D., & Reardon, T. (2015). Stages of transformation in food processing and marketing: Results of an initial inventory of processed food products in Dar es Salaam, Arusha and Mwanza (No. 1878–2017–2144).

  • Ingelaere, B., Christiaensen, L., De Weerdt, J., & Kanbur, R. (2018). Why secondary towns can be important for poverty reduction–A migrant perspective. World Development, 105, 273–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy, E., & Peters, P. (1992). Household food security and child nutrition: The interaction of income and gender of household head. World Development, 20(8), 1077–1085.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khonje, M. G., Ecker, O., & Qaim, M. (2020). Effects of Modern Food Retailers on Adult and Child Diets and Nutrition. Nutrients, 12(6), 1714.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kinabo, J. (2004). Impact of globalization on food consumption, health and nutrition in urban areas: a case study of Dares Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Globalization of food systems in developing countries: Impact on food security and nutrition, 135–154.

  • Kinda, T., & Loening, J. L. (2010). Small enterprise growth and the rural investment climate: Evidence from Tanzania. African Development Review, 22(1), 173–207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lépine, A., & Strobl, E. (2013). The effect of women’s bargaining power on child nutrition in rural Senegal. World Development, 45, 17–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lukmanji, Z., Hertzmark, E., Mlingi, N., Assey, V., Ndossi, G., & Fawzi, W. (2008). Tanzania food composition tables. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: MUHAS-TFNC, HSPH.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacIntyre, U. E., Kruger, H. S., Venter, C. S., & Vorster, H. H. (2002). Dietary intakes of an African population in different stages of transition in the North West Province, South Africa: The THUSA study. Nutrition Research, 22(3), 239–256.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Majumder, A., Ray, R., & Sinha, K. (2012). Calculating rural-urban food price differentials from unit values in household expenditure surveys: A comparison with existing methods and a new procedure. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 94(5), 1218–1235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martikainen, P., Brunner, E., & Marmot, M. (2003). Socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns among middle-aged men and women. Social Science & Medicine, 56(7), 1397–1410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maruapula, S. D., Jackson, J. C., Holsten, J., Shaibu, S., Malete, L., Wrotniak, B., & Compher, C. (2011). Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana. Public Health Nutrition, 14(12), 2260–2267.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Masters, W. A., Bai, Y., Herforth, A., Sarpong, D. B., Mishili, F., Kinabo, J., & Coates, J. C. (2018). Measuring the affordability of nutritious diets in Africa: Price indexes for diet diversity and the cost of nutrient adequacy. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 100(5), 1285–1301.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maxwell, D., Levin, C., Armar-Klemesu, M., Ruel, M., Morris, S., & Ahiadeke, C. (2000). Urban livelihoods and food and nutrition security in Greater Accra, Ghana. International Food Policy Research Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mazengo, M. C., Simell, O., Lukmanji, Z., Shirima, R., & Karvetti, R. L. (1997). Food consumption in rural and urban Tanzania. Acta Tropica, 68(3), 313–326.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mensah, E. B., & Szirmai, A. (2018). Africa sector database (asd): Expansion and update. UNU-MERIT working paper, (2018–020).

  • National Bureau of Statistics (2021). Consolidated zonal economic performance report for the quarter ending September 2021. Bank of Tanzania.

  • Otten, J., Meyers, L., & Hellwig, J. (Eds.). (2006). Dietary Reference Consumption: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. National Academies Press.

  • Pauw, K., & Thurlow, J. (2011). Agricultural growth, poverty, and nutrition in Tanzania. Food Policy, 36(6), 795–804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Popkin, B. M. (1999). Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Development, 27(11), 1905–1916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Popkin, B. M. (2004). The nutrition transition: An overview of world patterns of change. Nutrition Reviews, 62(suppl 2), S140–S143.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Popkin, B. M., Adair, L., & Ng, S. (2012). Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutrition Reviews, 70(1), 3–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Qaim, M. (2017). Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 76(1), 12–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reardon, T., & Timmer, C. P. (2014). Five inter-linked transformations in the Asian agrifood economy: Food security implications. Global Food Security, 3(2), 108–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reardon, T., Timmer, C. P., Barrett, C. B., & Berdegue, J. (2003). The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 85(5), 1140–1146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Regmi, A., & Meade, B. (2013). Demand side drivers of global food security. Global Food Security, 2(3), 166–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Resnick, D., Sivasubramanian, B., Idiong, I. C., Ojo, M. A., & Tanko, L. (2022). The enabling environment for informal food traders in Nigeria’s secondary cities. Transforming Urban Food Systems in Secondary Cities in Africa (pp. 103–131). Springer International Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruel, M. T., & Garrett, J. L. (2004). Features of urban food and nutrition security and considerations for successful urban programming. eJADE: electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics1(853-2016-56105), 242–271.

  • Ruel, M. T., & Alderman, H. (2013). Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: How can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition? The Lancet, 382(9891), 536–551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sahn, D. E., & Stifel, D. (2003). Exploring alternative measures of welfare in the absence of expenditure data. Review of Income and Wealth, 49(4), 463–489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sauer, C. M., Reardon, T., Tschirley, D., Liverpool‐Tasie, S., Awokuse, T., Alphonce, R., & Waized, B. (2021). Consumption of processed food & food away from home in big cities, small towns, and rural areas of Tanzania. Agricultural Economics52(5), 749–770.

  • Schneider, K., & Masters, W. A. (2019). Orange Fanta versus orange fruit: A novel measure of nutrition knowledge in Malawi. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 15(1), e12656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, I. K., Di Prima, S., Essink, D., & Broerse, J. E. (2021). Nutrition-sensitive agriculture: A systematic review of impact pathways to nutrition outcomes. Advances in Nutrition, 12(1), 251–275.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sibhatu, K. T., & Qaim, M. (2018). Meta-analysis of the association between production diversity, diets, and nutrition in smallholder farm households. Food Policy, 77, 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, L. C., Alderman, H., & Aduayom, D. (2006). Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa: new estimates from household expenditure surveys (Vol. 146). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

  • Smith, L. C., & Subandoro, A. (2007). Measuring food security using household expenditure surveys (Vol. 3). Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

  • Sodjinou, R., Agueh, V., Fayomi, B., & Delisle, H. (2009). Dietary patterns of urban adults in Benin: Relationship with overall diet quality and socio-demographic characteristics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(2), 222–228.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stage, J., Stage, J., & Mcgranahan, G. (2010). Is urbanization contributing to higher food prices? Environment and Urbanization, 22(1), 199–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steyn, N. P., Nel, J. H., Parker, W., Ayah, R., & Mbithe, D. (2012). Urbanisation and the nutrition transition: A comparison of diet and weight status of South African and Kenyan women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 40(3), 229–238.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • SWAC/OECD (2018). Africapolis. SWAC-E geopolis. Africapolis.org

  • Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2006). Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: Process, current status, and outstanding issues. The Journal of Nutrition, 136(5), 1449S–1452S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Swinnen, J. F., & Vandeplas, A. (2010). Market power and rents in global supply chains. Agricultural Economics, 41, 109–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2019 Revision, Online Edition.

  • Vandercasteelen, J., Beyene, S. T., Minten, B., & Swinnen, J. (2018). Big cities, small towns, and poor farmers: Evidence from Ethiopia. World Development, 106, 393–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weatherspoon, D. D., & Reardon, T. (2003). The rise of supermarkets in Africa: Implications for agrifood systems and the rural poor. Development Policy Review, 21(3), 333–355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webb, P., & Block, S. (2004). Nutrition information and formal schooling as inputs to child nutrition. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 52(4), 801–820.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weisell, R., & Dop, M. C. (2012). The adult male equivalent concept and its application to Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES). Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 33(3_suppl2), S157–S162.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Worku, I. H., Dereje, M., Minten, B., & Hirvonen, K. (2017). Diet transformation in Africa: The case of Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics, 48(S1), 73–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Bank. (2016). Promoting Green Urban Development in African Cities: Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Urban Environmental Profile. World Bank.

  • World Bank. (2021). Urban population growth (annual %). World Bank staff estimates based on the United Nations Population Division’s World Urbanization Prospects: 2018 Revision.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Bank, (2022a). World Bank development indicators. Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population); Prevalence of stunting, height for age (% of children under 5); Urban population (% of total population).

  • World Bank, (2022b). World Bank development indicators. Urban population growth (annual %). Tanzania.

  • World Health Organization. (2021). Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices: Definitions and measurement methods.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I acknowledge funding from Excellence of Science (EOS) Research Project 30784531 at the Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO) and the KU Leuven Methusalem Program. I would like to thank Joachim De Weerdt and Lara Cockx for their useful comments on this paper.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hannah Ameye.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Appendix

Appendix

Table 7 Mean grams of each food item consumed in rural and urban areas
Table 8 Percentage of households consuming under the DRI

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ameye, H. Dietary quality in rural areas, secondary towns, and cities: Insights from Tanzania. Food Sec. 15, 1563–1584 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-023-01399-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-023-01399-9

Keywords

Navigation