Achieving urban food security through a hybrid public-private food provisioning system: the case of Nanjing, China

Abstract

Chinese cities have been able to maintain much higher levels of household food security than many other cities in the Global South, according to recent surveys. Yet, little is known about the governance of the food provisioning system that underpins its urban food security. Based on a combination of household survey data, unstructured interviews and analyses of government documents, regulations and laws, we reveal that both Nanjing’s food provisioning system and its governance employ a public-private hybrid model. The hybridity is reflected in the mixed ownership structure of food wholesale and retail markets, the companies that manage them, and the involvement of both public and private capital in these markets. This hybridity prevents market failure in food system operation and thus is the underlying mechanism that ensures physical accessibility to and affordability of food in the city; it also balances food affordability and the profitability of food markets. This paper identifies various food security policies and regulations implemented by the Nanjing municipal government, such as the “vegetable basket” policy, the “crawling peg” policy in urban planning, the financial supports for upgrading wet market facilities and reducing rental fees, and the regulations on the retailing of fresh produce in supermarkets. These policies ensure that there is relatively equitable and easy access to healthy food for Nanjing residents and that the establishment of new wet markets keeps up with urban population growth. These food policies in Nanjing provide important lessons for other cities in the world to foster urban food security.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    See more information at the Hungry Cities Partnership website: http://hungrycities.net/

  2. 2.

    The Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project (Swindale and Bilinsky 2006a, b) conducted a series of studies exploring and testing measures of household food insecurity in a variety of geographical and cultural contexts and developed widely used indicators to measure aspects of food insecurity.

  3. 3.

    Following a city-initiated campaign to renovate and upgrade wet markets since 2007, most wet markets in Nanjing are located within permanent structures.

  4. 4.

    The difference in the prices for electricity between commercial and residential usage is about 0.25 CNY/kWh in 2018 (State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co. 2018), and the difference in the prices for water between commercial and residential usage is about 0.78 CNY/m3 in 2018 (Nanjing Tap Water General Company 2017; State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co. 2018).

  5. 5.

    In Nanjing, supermarkets and wet markets are commonly open 7 days per week and about 14 hours per day. Business hours are from around 6:00 to 20:00 for wet markets and 8:00 to 22:00 for supermarkets. The different business hours allow them to cater to households with different time constraints for grocery shopping.

References

  1. Ang, Y. Y. (2016). How China escaped the poverty trap (Cornell studies in political economy). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Battersby, J. (2012). Urban food security and the urban food policy gap. In Strategies to Overcome Poverty and Inequality: Towards Carnegie 3 Conference, Cape Town (pp. 3–7).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Battersby, J., Haysom, G., Marshak, M., Kroll, F., & Tawodzera, G. (2015). Retail planning as a means to support food security: A role for urban planning. http://www.afsun.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Web-Battersby-et-al-Retail-Planning.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  4. Bilinsky, P., & Swindale, A. (2010). Months of adequate household food provisioning (MAHFP) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v.4). Washington, D.C.: FHI 360/FANTA.

  5. Blekking, J., Tuholske, C., & Evans, T. (2017). Adaptive governance and market heterogeneity: An institutional analysis of an urban food system in sub-Saharan Africa. Sustainability, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122191.

  6. Boos, L. M. (2012). A farmers’ market in a Food Desert: Evaluating farmers’ market effects on food accessibility in Richmond, CA. California: University of California, Berkeley. Available at http://nature.berkeley.edu/classes/es196/projects/2012final/BoosL_2012.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  7. Bougoure, U., & Lee, B. (2009). Service quality in Hong Kong: Wet markets vs supermarkets. British Food Journal, 111(1), 70–79, https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700910924245.

  8. Candel, J. J. L. (2014). Food security governance: A systematic literature review. Food Security, 6(4), 585–601. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-014-0364-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Chen, Y., Zhong, X., & Zheng, C. (2010). Government shoud not just talk but no action about reducing wet markets' stall rent. Modern Express. http://dz.xdkb.net/page/1/2010-11/25/F6/20101125F6_pdf.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  10. Chen, D., Zhuang, J., He, G., & Liu, X. (2016). Operating with integrity to ensure food quality and safety http://xh.jsgrain.gov.cn/default.php?mod=article&do=detail&tid=1092610. Accessed July 23 2018.

  11. Coates, J., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v. 3). Washington, D.C.: FHI 360/FANTA.

  12. Connell, D. J. (2009). National Farmers’ Market Impact Study 2009 Report. https://www.unbc.ca/sites/default/files/sections/david-connell/farmers-markets/nationalfarmersmarketimpactstudy2009.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  13. Corte, V. F. D., Oliveira, S. V. D., & Dewes, H. (2015). Market concentration and food security in developing economies: Supermarket power and food prices in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9(11), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Crush, J., & Frayne, B. (2011). Supermarket expansion and the informal food economy in southern African cities: Implications for urban food security. Journal of Southern African Studies, 37(4), 781–807.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. FAO (2016). An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Working Papers. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  16. Fava, N., Guardia, M., & Oyón, J. L. (2016). Barcelona food retailing and public markets, 1876–1936. Urban history, 43(3), 454–475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Freedman, D. A., Flocke, S., Shon, E. J., Matlack, K., Trapl, E., Ohri-Vachaspati, P., Osborne, A., & Borawski, E. (2017). Farmers' market use patterns among supplemental nutrition assistance program recipients with high access to Farmers' Markets. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 49(5), 397–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2017.01.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Goldman, A., Krider, R., & Ramaswami, S. (1999). The persistent competitive advantage of traditional food retailers in Asia: Wet markets’ continued dominance in Hong Kong. Journal of Macromarketing, 19(2), 126–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146799192004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hamm, W. H., Frison, E., & Tirado von der Pahlen, M. C. (2018). Recognizing and integrating vital missing links in eco-Agri-food systems. In TEEB for Agriculture & Food: Scientific and economic foundations (pp. 111–159). Geneva: UN Environment.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hang, Y. (2000). Development and management of wet markets in Nanjing City. Journal of Jiangsu Institute of Commerce, 16(3), 76–78, https://doi.org/10.16335/j.cnki.issn1672-2604.2000.03.022.

  21. Ho, S.-C. (2005). Evolution versus tradition in marketing systems: The Hong Kong food-retailing experience. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 24(1), 90–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Huang, J., & Rozelle, S. (2006). The emergence of agricultural commodity markets in China. China Economic Review, 17(3), 266–280.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Huang, C., Tsai, K. H., & Chen, Y. C. (2015). How do wet markets still survive in Taiwan? British Food Journal, 117(1), 234–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hulbrock, E., Otten, J. J., Quinn, E., Johnson, D. B., & Lerman, S. (2017). Exploring the use of Seattle's Farmers' market incentive program ("fresh bucks") by household food security levels. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 12(3), 362–374. https://doi.org/10.1080/19320248.2016.1255696.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Humphrey, J. (2007). The supermarket revolution in developing countries: Tidal wave or tough competitive struggle? Journal of Economic Geography, 7(4), 433–450. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbm008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Islam, M. R. (2016). Hunger reduction in China: An analysis of contextual factors. Asian Social Work and Policy Review, 10(3), 295–310. https://doi.org/10.1111/aswp.12098.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Jiangsu Provincial Government (2011). Regulation on the price in urban wet markets. http://www.js.gov.cn/art/2011/4/29/art_46800_2680654.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  28. Kurland, N. B., & Aleci, L. S. (2015). From civic institution to community place: The meaning of the public market in modern America. Agriculture and Human Values, 32(3), 505–521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-014-9579-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Lowery, B., Sloane, D., Payán, D., Illum, J., & Lewis, L. (2016). Do Farmers' Markets increase access to healthy foods for all communities? Comparing markets in 24 neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Journal of the American Planning Association, 82(3), 252–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2016.1181000.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Ma, X., Huang, Y., & Sun, M. (2015). Study on key issues in last mile transportation of fresh farm produce based on agricultural product marketplace. Logistics Technology, 34(10), 18–20.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Marsilio, M., Cappellaro, G., & Cuccurullo, C. (2011). The intellectual structure of research into PPPs A bibliometric analysis. Public Management Review, 13(6), 763–782. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2010.539112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Martinez, M. G., Fearne, A., Caswell, J. A., & Henson, S. (2007). Co-regulation as a possible model for food safety governance: Opportunities for public-private partnerships. Food Policy, 32(3), 299–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.07.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. McCracken, V., Sage, J., & Sage, R. (2012). Do farmers’ markets ameliorate food deserts. Focus, 29(1), 21–26.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Mele, C., Ng, M., & Chim, M. B. (2015). Urban markets as a 'corrective' to advanced urbanism: The social space of wet markets in contemporary Singapore. Urban Studies, 52(1), 103–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014524613.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. MHURD (Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China). (2016). Code of urban residential areas Planning & Design (GB 50180–93). Beijing: Standards Press of China.

    Google Scholar 

  36. MOA (Ministry of Agriculture) (2017). Notice on the evaluation approach of the implementation of “vegetable basket” policy. http://www.moa.gov.cn/nybgb/2017/dsanq/201712/P020171231456518104852.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  37. MOC (Ministry of Commerce), MOF (Ministry of Finance), & STA (State Taxation Administration) (2005). Notice of Pilot Program of Produce Chain-store Operations. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/d/200504/20050400076494.shtml. Accessed July 23 2018.

  38. Morales, A. (2009). Public markets as community development tools. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28(4), 426–440. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456x08329471.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Morales, A. (2011). Marketplaces: Prospects for social, economic, and political development. Journal of Planning Literature, 26(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412210388040.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Morales, A., & Kettles, G. (2010). Healthy food outside: farmers' markets, taco trucks, and sidewalk fruit vendors. Journal of Contemporary Health Law & Policy, 26(1), 20–48.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Nanjing Municipal Government (2003). Regulations on wet markets planning and construction. http://www.njghj.gov.cn/NGWeb/Page/Detail.aspx?InfoGuid=70359320-b543-43c2-8c29-7cc990dd635e. Accessed July 23 2018.

  42. Nanjing Municipal Government (2007). The Plan for Upgrading Wet markets. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/xxgk/szf/200805/t20080528_1182053.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  43. Nanjing Municipal Government (2008). The plan of vegetable basket project for 2008-2012. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/xxgk/szf/200902/t20090218_1176613.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  44. Nanjing Municipal Government (2010). Notice on stabilizing commodity price and securing the basic living standards of Nanjing residents. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/gk/zfgb_1/1012/101204/201801/t20180109_5229854.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  45. Nanjing Municipal Government (2011). Opinions for enhancing the construction of food distribution system and ensuring the stable food supply in the market. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/zdgk/201202/t20120229_1055724.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  46. Nanjing Municipal Government (2012). Implementation plan of improving "last mile" delivery-logistics of produce. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/xxgk/szf/201208/t20120803_1183307.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  47. Nanjing Municipal Government (2013). Suggestion on Upgrading Wet Markets in Nanjing City. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/xxgk/szf/201302/t20130206_1183456.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  48. Nanjing Municipal Government (2016). Regulation on the administration of commercial outlets planning and construction inNanjing City. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/xxgk/szf/201609/t20160908_4145568.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  49. Nanjing Municipal Government (2017a). Circular on Appropriation of Fund to Subsidize Upgrading Wet Markets in Nanjing City. http://swj.nanjing.gov.cn/njsswj/201803/t20180330_5353718.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  50. Nanjing Municipal Government (2017b). Circular on the Plan for Upgrading Wet Markets in Nanjing City. http://www.nanjing.gov.cn/xxgk/szf/201710/t20171009_5047113.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  51. Nanjing Municipal Government (2018). Administration of the Special Fund for Upgrading Wet Markets in Nanjing City. http://www.njcz.gov.cn/36557/czglzd/201802/t20180226_5318509.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  52. Nanjing Tap Water General Company (2017). Prices for water usage. http://www.jlwater.com/portal.do?method=news&subjectchildid=6&newsid=545. Accessed January 2019.

  53. National Research Council (US). (2009). Ameliorating Food Desert Conditions. In The Public Health Effects of Food Deserts: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).

    Google Scholar 

  54. Pensado-Leglise, M., & Smolski, A. (2017). An eco-egalitarian solution to the capitalist consumer paradox: Integrating short food chains and public market systems. Agriculture, 7(9), 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture7090076.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Peyton, S., Moseley, W., & Battersby, J. (2015). Implications of supermarket expansion on urban food security in Cape Town, South Africa. African Geographical Review, 34(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2014.1003307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Pothukuchi, K., & Kaufman, J. L. (2000). The food system - A stranger to the planning field. Journal of the American Planning Association, 66(2), 113–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360008976093.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Poulton, C., & Macartney, J. (2012). Can public-private partnerships leverage private Investment in Agricultural Value Chains in Africa? A preliminary review. World Development, 40(1), 96–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.05.017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Project for Public Spaces (2003). Public markets as a vehicle for social integration and upward mobility—Phase I. Report: An Overview of Existing Programs and Assessment of Opportunities. Project for Public Spaces New York.

  59. Reardon, T., & Timmer, C. P. (2012). The economics of the food system revolution. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 4(1), 225–264. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.resource.050708.144147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Reardon, T., Timmer, C. P., & Minten, B. (2012). Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(31), 12332–12337. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003160108.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Rocha, C. (2007). Food insecurity as market failure: A contribution from economics. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 1(4), 5–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Rocha, C., & Lessa, I. (2009). Urban governance for food security: The alternative food system in Belo Horizonte, Brazil AU - Rocha, Cecilia. International Planning Studies, 14(4), 389–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563471003642787.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Rouviere, E., & Royer, A. (2017). Public private partnerships in food industries: A road to success? Food Policy, 69, 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.04.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Rudkin, S. (2015). Supermarket interventions and diet in areas of limited retail access: Policy suggestions from the Seacroft intervention study. MPRA paper no 62434. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/62434/1/MPRA_paper_62434.pdf. Accessed July 23 2018.

  65. Ruelas, V., Iverson, E., Kiekel, P., & Peters, A. (2012). The role of Farmers' Markets in two low income, urban communities. Journal of Community Health, 37(3), 554–562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-011-9479-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Sadler, R. C., Gilliland, J. A., & Arku, G. (2013). A food retail-based intervention on food security and consumption. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10(8), 3325–3346. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10083325.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. Salcido, G., Leglise, M. D. R. P., & Smolski, A. (2015). Food distribution's socio-economic relationships and public policy: Mexico City's municipal public markets. Development in Practice, 25(3), 293–305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. SCJPPC (Standing Committee of Jiangsu Provincial People's Congress) (1998). Legislative review on "Nanjing Municipal Regulation on Wetmarket Administration". http://www.jsrd.gov.cn/zyfb/hygb/19987/200901/t20090107_29860.shtml. Accessed July 23 2018.

  69. SCNMPC (Standing Committee of Nanjing Municipal People's Congress) (2004). Decision on Amending "Nanjing Municipal Regulation on Wetmarket Administration". http://www.njghj.gov.cn/NGWEB/Page/Detail.aspx?InfoGuid=2170f428-7b83-4f46-afcd-4a15a64cd37c. Accessed July 23 2018.

  70. SCNMPC (Standing Committee of Nanjing Municipal People's Congress) (2010). Regulations on Marketplace Management. http://home.saic.gov.cn/fgs/zcfg/201801/t20180125_272050.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  71. Scott, S., Si, Z. Z., Schumilas, T., & Chen, A. J. (2014). Contradictions in state- and civil society-driven developments in China's ecological agriculture sector. Food Policy, 45, 158–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.08.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Sharif, M. S. M., Nor, N. M., Zahari, M. S. M., & Muhammad, R. (2015). Following mothers to the wet market: The significant benefits gain by young generations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 197–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Si, Z., & Zhong, T. (2018). The state of household food security in Nanjing, China. In J. Crush & L. Riley (Eds.), Hungry Cities Report (pp. 1–53).

    Google Scholar 

  74. Si, Z., Scott, S., & McCordic, C. (2018). Wet markets, supermarkets and alternative food sources: Consumers’ food access in Nanjing, China. Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 40, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02255189.2018.1442322.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Slade, C., Baldwin, C., & Budge, T. (2016). Urban planning roles in responding to food security needs. Journal of Agriculture Food Systems and Community Development, 7(1), 33–48. https://doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2016.071.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. State Council (1995). Notice on deepening the reform of procurement and distribution system of grains, cotton and synthetic fertilizer. http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2018-04/13/content_5281683.htm. Accessed July 23 2018.

  77. State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., L. (2018). Prices for electricity usage. http://www.js.sgcc.com.cn/html/main/col2747/2018-6/19/20180619081445039819903_1.html. Accessed January 15 2019.

  78. Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2006a). Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: Process, current status, and outstanding issues. Journal of Nutrition, 136(5), 1449–1452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2006b). Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v.2). Washington, D.C.: FHI 360/FANTA.

  80. Tuan, F. C., & Ke, B. (1999). A review of China's agricultural policy: Past and present developments. Paper presented at the Agriculture in China and OECD Countries: Past Policies and Future Challenges, https://books.google.com/books?id=5ZHWAgAAQBAJ. Accessed July 23 2018.

  81. Veeck, A., & Veeck, G. (2000). Consumer segmentation and changing food purchase patterns in Nanjing, PRC. World Development, 28(3), 457–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(99)00135-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Walker, R. E., Keane, C. R., & Burke, J. G. (2010). Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature. Health & Place, 16(5), 876–884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.04.013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Wang, Q. (2010). Public-ownership marketplace being operated by private sectors embarrasses government's require of reduceing stall rents by half. Jiangnan Times. http://news.163.com/10/1208/00/6NBDEF9400014AED.html. Accessed July 23 2018.

  84. Weatherspoon, D. D., & Reardon, T. (2003). The rise of supermarkets in Africa: Implications for Agrifood systems and the rural poor. Development Policy Review, 21(3), 333–355. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7679.00214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. XHBYNET (Xinhua Baoye Wang) (2010). Reducing wet markets' stall rent by half. http://js.xhby.net/system/2010/12/02/010858670.shtml. Accessed July 23 2018.

  86. Xia, T., & Chen, Y. (2010). Reducing wet market stall rent by half has been questioned. Modern Express. http://www.chinanews.com/cj/2010/12-03/2698093.shtml. Accessed July 23 2018.

  87. Yu, J. (2014). Fresh produce market is vital for sales chanel growth. https://www.kantarworldpanel.com/dwl.php?sn=news_downloads&id=506. Accessed July 25 2018.

  88. Zhang, Q. F., & Pan, Z. (2013). The transformation of urban vegetable retail in China: Wet markets, supermarkets and informal markets in Shanghai. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 43(3), 497–518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Zhong, T., Si, Z., Crush, J., Xu, Z., Huang, X., Scott, S., Tang, S., & Zhang, X. (2018). The impact of proximity to wet markets and supermarkets on household dietary diversity in Nanjing City, China. Sustainability, 10(5), 1465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Zou, W. (2014). Frequent dispute against increasing wet market's stall rent. Nanjing Daily. http://jsnews2.jschina.com.cn/system/2014/02/18/020286963.shtml. Accessed July 23 2018.

  91. Zou, W., & Zhang, J. (2011). The way to make wet markets public-benefit. Nanjing Daily. http://finance.china.com.cn/news/dfjj/20111229/454640.shtml. Accessed July 23 2018.

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the Hungry Cities Partnership project supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the International Development Research Centre through the International Partnerships for Sustainable Societies (IPaSS) Program. We are extremely grateful for the assistance and suggestions of Dr. Shuangshuang Tang, Miss Menglu Yan and Dr. Xiang Zhang.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Taiyang Zhong.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhong, T., Si, Z., Crush, J. et al. Achieving urban food security through a hybrid public-private food provisioning system: the case of Nanjing, China. Food Sec. 11, 1071–1086 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-019-00961-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Urban food system governance
  • Food security
  • Inclusive development
  • Food accessibility and affordability