Advertisement

Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 9–25 | Cite as

Access to genes: linkages between genebanks and farmers’ seed systems

  • Ola Tveitereid Westengen
  • Kristine Skarbø
  • Teshome Hunduma Mulesa
  • Trygve Berg
Original Paper

Abstract

Genebanks conserve key resources for handling current and future challenges to food production and security. The role of genebanks has evolved from primarily serving plant breeders to include long-term biodiversity conservation and distribution to a wider user community. International policy frameworks stress the complementarity of ex situ and in situ conservation and management, but a dichotomy prevails in the public and scholarly agricultural development discourse. Here, we present a study of existing linkages between the two conservation and management approaches, their challenges and future options. First, we show that farmers, farmer organizations, and NGOs now comprise a considerable user group of genebank material, receiving at least 8% of the seed samples distributed from international genebanks in 2015, on par with the proportion distributed to the commercial seed sector. Second, we map and categorize approaches to introduce genebank material into farmers’ seed systems. Based on a survey, interviews and a literature review we categorize direct genebank-farmer linkages into six categories: (1) Reintroduction, (2) Emergency Seed Interventions, (3) Community Seed Banks, (4) Participatory Plant Breeding, (5) Variety Introduction, and (6) Integrative Seed System Approaches. We investigate the merits of these approaches as alternative and complementary pathways for enhancing farmers’ access to crop diversity. Finally, we discuss challenges related to scale, sustainability and legal frame conditions and point out opportunities to realize synergies to achieve the ultimate goal of the ex situ conservation agenda and the farmers’ rights agenda, namely to strengthen farmers’ access to suitable seeds.

Keywords

Plant Genetic Resources Ex situ conservation In situ conservation Seed System Development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This article is based on a report written on a grant from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). We thank all survey respondents and experts interviewed for taking the time to participate. We thank the Global Crop Diversity Trust for providing the distribution data from the CGIAR genebanks and for their support in setting up the electronic survey used in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abay, F., Waters-Bayer, A., & Bjørnstad, Å. (2008). Farmers' seed management and innovation in varietal selection: Implications for barley breeding in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment, 37(4), 312–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abay, F., de Boef, W., & Bjørnstad, Å. (2011). Network analysis of barley seed flows in Tigray, Ethiopia: Supporting the design of strategies that contribute to on-farm management of plant genetic resources. Plant Genetic Resources, 9(04), 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almekinders, C., & Hardon, J. (2006). Bringing farmers back into breeding: Experiences with participatory plant breeding and challenges for institutionalisation, AgroSpecial 5. The Netherlands: Agromisa Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. Ana, D. (2015). Unfreezing the seed: State, expertise and patriotism at the Suceava Gene Bank. Budapest: Central European University.Google Scholar
  5. Andersen, R., & Winge, T. (2011). Linking community seedbanks and farmers’ rights. In A. P. Kroglund, A. Wilhelmsen, B. B. Torheim, K. Ulsrud, P. Shresta, R. Ortiz, et al. (Eds.), Banking for the future: Savings, security and seeds. A short study of community seed banks in Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Nepal, Thailand, Zambia and Zimbabwe (pp. 5-6). The development fund, Grøset: Oslo.Google Scholar
  6. Andersen, R., & Winge, T. (2013). Realising Farmers' rights to crop genetic resources: Success stories and best practices. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Andersen, R., Borromeo, T. H., & Altoveros, N. C. (2013). A community register in the Philippines. In R. Andersen & T. Winge (Eds.), Realising Farmers' rights to crop genetic resources: Success stories and best practices. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Argumedo, A. (2008). The Potato Park, Peru: Conserving agrobiodiversity in an Andean indigenous biocultural heritage area. In T. Amend, J. Brown, A. Kothari, A. Phillips, & S. Stolton (Eds.), Protected landscapes and agrobiodiversity values (pp. 45–58). Heidelberg: Kasparek Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. Arndorfer, M., Kajtna, B., & Vorderwülbecke, B. (2009). Integrating ex situ and on-farm conservation approaches in the management of local vegetable diversity in Austria. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 817, 333–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asdal, Å. (2011). Bevaringssorter/tradisjonssorter - aktuelle tiltak i regi av Norsk genressurssenter (conservation varieties/traditional varieties - relevant activities administered by the Norwegian genetic resource center). In Fagsamling om Gamle Kornsorter (Workshop on Old Cereal Varieties), Sigdal, Norway, 2011. Ås: Norwegian Genetic Resource Center.Google Scholar
  11. Asfaw, A., Almekinders, C. J., Blair, M. W., & Struik, P. C. (2012). Participatory approach in common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) breeding for drought tolerance for southern Ethiopia. Plant Breeding, 131(1), 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bänziger, M., & de Meyer, J. (2002). Collaborative maize variety development for stress-prone environments in southern Africa. Farmers, scientists, and plant breeding: Integrating knowledge and practice (pp. 269-296). Oxon: CABI.Google Scholar
  13. Berg, T. (1997). Devolution of plant breeding. In L. Sperling & Loevinsohn (Eds.), Using diversity: Enhancing and maintaining genetic resources on-farm. Proceedings of a workshop held 19-21 June 1995, in New Delhi. New Delhi: International Development Research Centre (IDRC).Google Scholar
  14. Bioversity. (2016a). The crowdsourcing approach: Seeds for Needs Factsheet 2. In Bioversity International (Ed.), (Vol. 2, pp. 2). Rome: Bioversity International.Google Scholar
  15. Bioversity (2016b). The ‘Seeds for Needs’ initiative in Ethiopia: Integrating farmer and scientist knowledge. In Bioversity International (Ed.), (Vol. 1, pp. 4). Rome: Bioversity International.Google Scholar
  16. Borges Días, T. A., da Fonseca Ferreira, M. A. J., Barbieri, R. L., França Teixeira, F., & de Azevedo, S. G. (2013). Gene banks that promote on-farm management through the reintroduction of local varieties in Brazil. In W. S. de Boef, A. Subedi, N. Peroni, M. Thijssen, & E. O'Keefe (Eds.), Community biodiversity management: Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources (pp. 91–95). London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  17. Bragdon, S., Jarvis, D. I., Gauchan, D., Mar, I., Hue, N. N., Balma, D., et al. (2009). The agricultural biodiversity policy development process: Exploring means of policy development to support the on-farm management of crop genetic diversity. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, 5(1), 10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bramel-Cox, P. (2000). Toward establishing links between farmers and the ICRISAT genebank. In E. Friis-Hansen & B. Sthapit (Eds.), Participatory approaches to the conservation and use of plant genetic resources (pp. 69–74). Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  19. Burke, M. B., Lobell, D. B., & Guarino, L. (2009). Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions, 19(3), 317–325.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buruchara, R. A., Sperling, L., Ewell, P., & Kirkby, R. (2002). The role of research institutions in seed–related disaster relief: Seeds of hope experiences in Rwanda. Disasters, 26(4), 288–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Campesina, L. V. (2015). You are destroying the treaty on plant genetic resources. https://viacampesina.org/en/: La via Campesina. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
  22. Ceccarelli, S. (2015). Efficiency of plant breeding. Crop Science, 55(1), 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ceccarelli, S., & Grando, S. (2007). Decentralized-participatory plant breeding: An example of demand driven research. Euphytica, 155(3), 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ceccarelli, S., Grando, S., Bailey, E., Amri, A., El-Felah, M., Nassif, F., et al. (2001). Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia. Euphytica, 122(3), 521–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chable, V., Dawson, J., Bocci, R., & Goldringer, I. (2014). Seeds for organic agriculture: Development of participatory plant breeding and farmers’ networks in france. In Organic farming, prototype for sustainable agricultures (pp. 383–400). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Challinor, A. J., Koehler, A.-K., Ramirez-Villegas, J., Whitfield, S., & Das, B. (2016). Current warming will reduce yields unless maize breeding and seed systems adapt immediately. Nature Climate Change, 6(10), 954–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chambers, R., & Ghildyal, B. (1985). Agricultural research for resource-poor farmers: The farmer-first-and-last model. Agricultural Administration, 20(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chambers, R., Pacey, A., & Thrupp, L. A. (1994). Farmer first: Farmer innovation and agricultural research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.Google Scholar
  29. CIP. (2016). Una visita al saber tradicional para celebrar a la papa. http://cipotato.org/press_release/una-visita-al-saber-tradicional-para-celebrar-la-papa/. Accessed 08 Nov 2016.
  30. CIP. (n. d.). La Ruta del Condor. http://cipotato.org/es/programas-de-investigacion/banco-genetico/la-ruta-del-condor/. Accessed 09 Nov 2016.
  31. Clancy, E., & Vernooy, R. (2016). Realizing farmers’ rights through community-based agricultural biodiversity management. Rome: Bioversity International.Google Scholar
  32. Conway, G. (2012). One billion hungry: Can we feed the world? Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Coomes, O. T., McGuire, S. J., Garine, E., Caillon, S., Mckey, D., Demeulenaere, E., et al. (2015). Farmer seed networks make a limited contribution to agriculture? Four common misconceptions. Food Policy, 56, 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Correa, C. M. (2015). Plant variety protection in developing countries: A tool for designing a sui generis plant variety protection system: An alternative to UPOV 1991. By: Association for Plant Breeding for the benefit of society (APBREBES) and its member organizations: Berne declaration, the development fund, SEARICE and third world network.Google Scholar
  35. Dalle, S. P., & Walsh, S. (2015). USC Canada's experiance in supporting community seed banks in Africa, Asia and the Americas. In R. Vernooy, P. Shrestha, & B. Sthapit (Eds.), Community seed banks: Origins, evolution and prospects (pp. 212–230). London: Earthscan from Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. David, S. (2004). Farmer seed enterprises: A sustainable approach to seed delivery? Agriculture and Human Values, 21(4), 387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies, L., & Allender, C. J. (2017). Who is sowing our seeds? A systematic review of the use of plant genetic resources in research. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-017-0491-7 Online first 1-10.
  38. de Boef, W. S., Dempewolf, H., Byakweli, J. M., & Engels, J. M. M. (2010). Integrating genetic resource conservation and sustainable development into strategies to increase the robustness of seed systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 34(5), 504–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. de Boef, W. S., Subedi, A., Peroni, N., Thijssen, M., & O'Keeffe, E. (2013). Community biodiversity management: Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. de Wit, M. M. (2016). Are we losing diversity? Navigating ecological, political, and epistemic dimensions of agrobiodiversity conservation. Agriculture and Human Values, 33(3), 625–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Desclaux, D., Ceccarelli, S., Navazio, J., Coley, M., Trouche, G., Aguirre, S., et al. (2012). Centralized or decentralized breeding: The potentials of participatory approaches for low-input and organic agriculture. In Organic crop breeding (pp. 99–123). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  42. Dulloo, M., Thormann, I., Fiorino, E., De Felice, S., Rao, V., & Snook, L. (2013). Trends in research using plant genetic resources from germplasm collections: From 1996 to 2006. Crop Science, 53(4), 1217–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Esquinas-Alcazar, J. (2005). Protecting crop genetic diversity for food security: Political, ethical and technical challenges. Nature Reviews Genetics, 6, 946–953.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Evenson, R. E., & Gollin, D. (2003). Assessing the impact of the green revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science, 300(5620), 758–762.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Falcon, W. P., & Fowler, C. (2002). Carving up the commons—Emergence of a new international regime for germplasm development and transfer. Food Policy, 27(3), 197–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. FAO. (1993). Plant Genetic Resources Service. Quality declared seed system. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 185. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  47. FAO. (2009). The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (p. 60). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  48. FAO. (2010). Seeds in emergencies: a technical handbook (FAO plant production and protection paper 202). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  49. FAO. (2011). Second global plan of action for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (p. 91). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  50. FAO. (2013). Fifth session of the governing body, resolution 8/2013, implementation of article 9, Farmers' rights. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  51. FAO. (2014). Genebank standards for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (Rev ed.). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  52. FAO. (2015a). Opinions and advice of the Ad Hoc Technical Advisory Committee on the Multilateral System and the Standard Material Transfer Agreement. In FAO (Ed.). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  53. FAO. (2015b). Sixth session of the governing body of the international treaty on plant genetic rousources for food and agriculture, 5–9 October 2015. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  54. FAO. (2016a). Food security capacity building: Seeds. http://www.fao.org/in-action/food-security-capacity-building/project-components/seeds/en/#c257003. Accessed 16 Nov 2016.
  55. FAO. (2016b). Seed security and rehabilitation. http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/thematic-sitemap/theme/seeds-pgr/seed-sys/security/en/. Accessed 16 Nov 2016.
  56. FAO. (2016c). Seed security assessment: A practitioner's guide. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  57. FAO. (2017a). Sixteenth regular session of the commission on genetic resources for food and agriculture, Rome, 30 January – 3 February 2017. In FAO (Ed.). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  58. FAO. (2017b). Webpage of the Easy-SMTA. https://mls.planttreaty.org/itt/. Accessed 01 Sept 2017.
  59. Fenzi, M., & Bonneuil, C. (2016). From “genetic resources” to “ecosystems services”: A century of science and global policies for crop diversity conservation. Culture Agriculture Food and Environment, 38(2), 72–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Feyissa, R., Gezu, G., Tsegaye, B., & Desalegn, T. (2013). On-farm management of plant genetic resources through community seed banks in Ethiopia. In W. Simon de Boef, A. Subedi, N. Peroni, M. Thijssen, & E. O’Keeffe (Eds.), Community biodiversity management- promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources (pp. 26–31). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Fowler, C. (2013). Complementarity and conflict. In V. D. Nazarea, R. E. Rhoades, & J. Andrews-Swann (Eds.), Seeds of resistance, seeds of hope: Place and agency in the conservation of biodiversity (pp. 196–2013). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  62. Fowler, C., Smale, M., & Gaiji, S. (2001). Unequal exchange? Recent transfers of agricultural resources and their implications for developing countries. Development Policy Review, 19(2), 181–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Frankel, O. H. (1974). Genetic conservation: Our evolutionary responsibility. Genetics, 78(1), 53–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Frankel, O. (1986). Genetic resources: The founding years. Part II: The Movement’s constituent assembly. Diversity, 2(8), 30–32.Google Scholar
  65. Frankel, O., & Bennett, E. (Eds.). (1970). Genetic resources in plants—Their exploration and conservation. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  66. GFAR, DF, & CEPA. (2015). Capacity building material for the realization of farmers' rights in Malawi: farmers' rights related to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in Malawi. Oslo: Global Forum on Agricultural Research, The Development Fund of Norway and Centre for Environmental Policy and Advocacy.Google Scholar
  67. Gibson, R., Mpembe, I., & Mwanga, R. (2011). Benefits of participatory plant breeding (PPB) as exemplified by the first-ever officially released PPB-bred sweet potato cultivar. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 149(05), 625–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Global Alliance. (2016). The future of food: Seeds of resilience, a compendium of perspectives on agricultural biodiversity from around the world.: Global alliance for the future of food.Google Scholar
  69. Graddy, T. G. (2014). Situating in situ: A critical geography of agricultural biodiversity conservation in the Peruvian Andes and beyond. Antipode, 46(2), 426–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gyawali, S., Sthapit, B., Bhandari, B., Bajracharya, J., Shrestha, P., Upadhyay, M., et al. (2010). Participatory crop improvement and formal release of Jethobudho rice landrace in Nepal. Euphytica, 176(1), 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Harlan, J. R. (1975). Our vanishing genetic resources. Science, 188(4188), 617–621.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hassena, M., van den Broek, J., de Boef, W., Thijssen, M., & Louwaars, N. (2012). Integrated seed sector development: Experiences in Africa. In The defining moments in ethiopian seed system (pp. 327–339). Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  73. Helicke, N. A. (2015). Seed exchange networks and food system resilience in the United States. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 5(4), 636–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hindess, K. (2016). Whose seeds are they anyway? Resurgence and Ecologist Magazine 6. January 2016. https://theecologist.org/2016/jan/06/real-farming-report-whose-seeds-are-they-anyway. Accessed 26 Apr 2017
  75. Hoffmann, V., Probst, K., & Christinck, A. (2007). Farmers and researchers: How can collaborative advantages be created in participatory research and technology development? Agriculture and Human Values, 24, 355–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Huamán, Z., & Schmiediche, P. (1999). The potato genetic resources held in trust by the international potato center (CIP) in Peru. Potato Research, 42, 413–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. IRRI. (2016). Cambodia and IRRI. http://books.irri.org/Cambodia_IRRI_brochure.pdf. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
  78. ISSD. (2017a). Integrated seed sector development Ethiopia programme. http://www.issdethiopia.org/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
  79. ISSD. (2017b). Integrated seed sector development, course web page, Wageningen UR. http://www.wur.nl/en/show/CDIcourse_ISSD_2017.htm. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
  80. Jarvis, D. I., Hodgkin, T., Sthapit, B. R., Fadda, C., & Lopez-Noriega, I. (2011). An heuristic framework for identifying multiple ways of supporting the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties within the agricultural production system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1–2), 125–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kendall, J., & Gras, E. (2013). The Maison de la Semence Paysanne and diversity platform: Promoting agrobiodiversity in France. In W. S. de Boef, A. Subedi, N. Peroni, M. Thijssen, & E. O'Keefe (Eds.), Community biodiversity management: Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources (pp. 43–50). London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  82. Kloppenburg, J. R. (2005). First the seed: The political economy of plant biotechnology: Univ of Wisconsin press, Madison.Google Scholar
  83. Laurie, S., & Magoro, M. (2008). Evaluation and release of new sweet potato varieties through farmer participatory selection. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3(10), 672–676.Google Scholar
  84. LI-BIRD. (2016). Safeguarding seeds in the aftermath of the earthquake. http://www.libird.org/app/news/view.aspx?record_id=35. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
  85. Louwaars, N. P., & de Boef, W. S. (2012). Integrated seed sector development in Africa: A conceptual framework for creating coherence between practices, programs, and policies. Journal of Crop Improvement, 26(1), 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McGuire, S., & Sperling, L. (2013). Making seed systems more resilient to stress. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions, 23(3), 644–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McGuire, S., & Sperling, L. (2016). Seed systems smallholder farmers use. Food Security, 8(1), 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Melaku, W., Awegechew, T., & Tesfaye, T. (2000). Participatory approaches linking farmer access to genebanks: Ethiopia. In E. Friis-Hansen & B. R. Sthapit (Eds.), Participatory approaches to the con-servation and use of plant genetic resources (pp. 149–153). Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  89. Meza, C., Rutti, A., Gómez, R., & Zapata, F. (2012). Conservación y uso de la agrobiodiversidad: Guía para la implementación de bancos comunales de semillas. Lima: SGCAN, Instituto de Montaña, UICN-Sur.Google Scholar
  90. Morris, M. L., & Bellon, M. R. (2004). Participatory plant breeding research: Opportunities and challenges for the international crop improvement system. Euphytica, 136(1), 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nazarea, V. D., & Rhoades, R. E. (2013). Conservation beyond design: An introduction. In V. D. Nazarea, R. E. Rhoades, & J. Andrews-Swann (Eds.), Seeds of resistance, seeds of hope: Place and agency in the conservation of biodiversity (pp. 3–16). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  92. Nesbitt, H. J. (1997). Rice production in Cambodia. Manila: International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar
  93. Nishikawa, Y., & Winge, T. (2013). The Hiroshima agricultural Gene Bank: Re-introducing local varieties, maintaining traditional knowledge. In R. Andersen & T. Winge (Eds.), Realising farmers' rights to crop genetic resources : Success stories and best practices (pp. 167–178). London: Earthscan from Routledge.Google Scholar
  94. Pistorius, R. (1997). Scientists, plants and politics – A history of the plant genetic resources movement. Rome: IPGRI.Google Scholar
  95. Potato Park, ANDES, & CIP. (2004). Agreement on the repatriation, restoration and monitoring of agrobiodiversity of native potatoes and associated community knowledge systems. https://www.grain.org/article/entries/2165-andes-potato-park-cip-agreement. Accessed 08 Nov 2016.
  96. Richards, P., & Ruivenkamp, G. (1997). Seeds and survival: Crop genetic resources in war and reconstruction in Africa. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  97. Rubenstein, K. D., Smale, M., & Widrlechner, M. P. (2006). Demand for genetic resources and the US National Plant Germplasm System. Crop Science, 46(3), 1021–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Scoones, I., & Thompson, J. (2011). The politics of seed in Africa's green revolution: Alternative narratives and competing pathways. IDS Bulletin, 42(4), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. SeedSystem.org.org. (2016a). Field assessments around the world. http://SeedSystem.org.org/field-assessments-action-plans/. Accessed 16 Nov 2016.
  100. SeedSystem.org.org. (2016b). Seed system: strengthening smallholder farmer seed systems. http://SeedSystem.org.org/. Accessed 16 Nov 2016.
  101. Smale, M., & Day-Rubenstein, K. (2002). The demand for crop genetic resources: International use of the US national plant germplasm system. World Development, 30(9), 1639–1655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sperling, L. (2008). When disaster strikes: A guide to assessing seed system security. Cali: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical.Google Scholar
  103. Sperling, L., & Longley, C. (2002). Editorial: Beyond seeds and tools: Effective support to farmers in emergencies. Disasters, 26(4), 283–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sperling, L., & McGuire, S. (2010). Persistent myths about emergency seed aid. Food Policy, 35, 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sperling, L., Ashby, J. A., Smith, M. E., Weltzien, E., & McGuire, S. (2001). A framework for analyzing participatory plant breeding approaches and results. Euphytica, 122(3), 439–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sperling, L., Cooper, H. D., & Remington, T. (2008). Moving towards more effective seed aid. Journal of Development Studies, 44(4), 586–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sthapit, B. (2012). Emerging theory and practice: community seed banks, seed system resilience and food security. In Community seed banks in Nepal: Past, present, future. Proceedings of a National Workshop, Pokhara, Nepal, 14–15 June 2012, Rome, Italy, 2012 (pp. 16–40): LI-BIRD and Bioversity International.Google Scholar
  108. Sumberg, J., & Thompson, J. (2012). Contested agronomy: Agricultural research in a changing world. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. Sumberg, J., Thompson, J., & Woodhouse, P. (2013). Why agronomy in the developing world has become contentious. Agriculture and Human Values, 30(1), 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tapia Bastidas, C. G., & Carrera Rueda, H. F. (2013). Practices that contribute to promoting and appreciating Andean crops and identity in Cotacachi, Ecuador. In W. S. de Boef, A. Subedi, N. Peroni, M. Thijssen, & E. O'Keefe (Eds.), Community biodiversity management: Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources (pp. 77–82). London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  111. Tay, D. (2009). Model genebank concept: CIP Genebank as an example. In 15th Triennial International Society for Tropical Root Crops Symposium, Lima, Peru, 2009 (pp. 5–11).Google Scholar
  112. Teshome, H. M., & Ortiz, R. (2015). Norway's development fund: Supporting community seed bank practices. In R. Vernooy, P. Shrestha, & B. Sthapit (Eds.), Community seed banks: Origins, evolution and prospects (pp. 194–205). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  113. The Development Fund Norway. (2011). Banking for the future: Savings, security and seeds. In A short study of community seed banks in Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Nepal, Thailand, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Oslo: Grøset.Google Scholar
  114. The Right to Food and Nutrition Watch Consortium. (2016). Keeping seeds in peoples’ hands. Berlin: LokayDRUCK.Google Scholar
  115. Thijssen, M. H., Bishaw, Z., Beshir, A., & De Boef, W. S. (2008). Farmers, seeds and varieties. Supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia. Wageningen International: Wageningen.Google Scholar
  116. van Etten, J. (2011). Crowdsourcing crop improvement in sub-saharan africa: A proposal for a scalable and inclusive approach to food security. IDS Bulletin, 42(4), 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vernooy, R., Sthapit, B., Galluzzi, G., & Shrestha, P. (2014). The multiple functions and services of community seedbanks. Resources, 3(4), 636–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P., & Sthapit, B. (2015). Community seed banks: Origins, evolution and prospects. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  119. Visser, B. (2016). The impact of national seed laws on the functioning of small-scale seed systems: A country-case study. The Hague: Oxfam Novib.Google Scholar
  120. Walsh, S and Remington, T and Kugbei, S and Ojiewo, C O (2015) Review of Community Seed Production Practices in Africa Part 1: Implementation Strategies and Models. In: Workshop Proceedings on Community Seed Production, 9-11 December 2013. Addis Ababa: ICRISAT & FAOGoogle Scholar
  121. Witcombe, J. R., Joshi, A., Joshi, K., & Sthapit, B. (1996). Farmer participatory crop improvement. I. Varietal selection and breeding methods and their impact on biodiversity. Experimental Agriculture, 32(04), 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ola Tveitereid Westengen
    • 1
  • Kristine Skarbø
    • 1
  • Teshome Hunduma Mulesa
    • 1
  • Trygve Berg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International Environment and Development StudiesNoragric Norwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway

Personalised recommendations