Advertisement

Food Security

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 355–370 | Cite as

Resilience and child malnutrition in Mali

  • Marco d’ErricoEmail author
  • Rebecca Pietrelli
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite increasing attention to resilience, the link between resilience and child malnutrition in Africa has so far never been empirically explored. Using detailed survey data from Mali, this paper examines whether the resilience capacity of households is a determinant of child malnutrition. After estimating the Resilience Capacity Index (RCI) by using a Structural Equation Model, an instrumental variable approach was followed. The impact of resilience capacity on child malnutrition was estimated by using the institutional presence of the state as an instrument for the RCI. Furthermore, the analysis captures differences in the relationship between resilience and the institutional presence of the state across regions. The empirical evidence presented here demonstrates that higher resilience capacity is associated with both lower probability of having malnourished children and a lower number of malnourished children in the household.

Keywords

Resilience Malnutrition Structural equation model Instrumental variable Mali 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful for all the support received, especially from our colleagues at the World Bank and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) for the data and ideas provided. We would especially like to thank Professor Handa and his team, as well as Tiziano Arduini, for very helpful comments and suggestions. We are grateful to the participants at the UNU-MERIT 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Development in Africa in Dakar, Senegal, and the 2015 Resilience, Research and Innovation Conference in Djibouti. We also want to acknowledge the contributions of our colleagues from the World Bank in Mali: Mr. Yele Maweki Batana, Ms. Dorsati Madani, Mr. Patrick Hoang-Vu Eozenou and Mr. Rob Swinkles.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Acock, A. C. (2013). Discovering structural equation modeling using Stata. Texas: Stata Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 268–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger, W. N., Brooks, N., Bentham, G., Agnew, M., Eriksen, S., Adger, W., Brooks, N., Kelly, M., Bentham, G., et al. (2004). New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Norwich, UK Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research URL http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/content/ new-indicators-vulnerability-and-adaptive-capacity. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  4. Alinovi, L., Mane, E., & Romano, D. (2008). Towards the measurement of household resilience to food insecurity: applying a model to Palestinian household data. In R. Sibrian (Ed.), Deriving Food Security Information From National Household Budget Surveys (pp. 137–52).Google Scholar
  5. Alinovi, L., Mane, E., & Romano, D. (2010a). Measuring household resilience to food insecurity: an application to Palestinian households. In R. Benedetti, M. Bee, G. Espra, & F. Piersimoni (Eds.), Agricultural Survey Methods (pp. 2–30).Google Scholar
  6. Alinovi, L., d’Errico, M., Mane, E., & Romano, D. (2010b). Livelihoods strategies and household resilience to food insecurity: An empirical analysis to Kenya. Background paper European University Institute pp 28–30, URL http://erd.eui.eu/media/BackgroundPapers/Alinovi-Romano-D’Errico-Mane.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  7. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. E. (2011). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Public Economic, 95(7), 476–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angrist, J., & Krueger, A. B. (2001). Instrumental variables and the search for identification: from supply and demand to natural experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16(4), 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett, C. B., & Carter, M. R. (2005). Risk and asset management in the presence of poverty traps: Implications for growth and social protection. Background note presented at workshop in Leuven, Belgium, June 23–24, 2005 World Bank/DFID project, \linking social protection and growth: concepts, Assessing Empirical Evidence, Developing the Future Agenda URL http://barrett.dyson.cornell.edu/files/papers/BC_riskcoping.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  10. Barrett, C. B., & Constas, M. A. (2014). Toward a theory of resilience for international development applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(40), 14,625–14,630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartholomew, D. J., & Knott, M. (1999). Latent variable models and factor analysis: Kendall’s library of statistics 7 (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Batabyal, A. A. (2003). The concept of resilience: retrospect and prospect. Disasters, 30(4), 433–450.Google Scholar
  13. Béné, C., Wood, R. G., Newsham, A., & Davies, M. (2012). Resilience: new utopia or new tyranny? Reflection about the potentials and limits of the concept of resilience in relation to vulnerability reduction programmes. IDS Working Papers 2012(405):1–61., URL http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Wp405. pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  14. Béné, C., Headey, D., Haddad, L., & von Grebmer, K. (2015). Is resilience a useful concept in the context of food security and nutrition programmes? Some conceptual and practical considerations. Food Security, 1–16.Google Scholar
  15. Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2008). Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caul_eld, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Mathers, C., Rivera, J., & Maternal, Group CUS. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The Lancet, 371(9608), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blössner, M., & De Onis, M. (2005). Malnutrition: quantifying the health impact at national and local levels. WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No 12 Technical report URL http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/MalnutritionEBD12.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2016.
  18. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New Jersey: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bollen, K. A., Bauer, D. J., Christ, S. L., & Edwards, M. C. (2007). An overview of structural equation models and recent elaborations. In S. Kolenikov & L. T. D. Steinle (Eds.), Recent Developments in social science statistics (pp. 37–79). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Browne, M., Ortmann, G., & Hendriks, S. L. (2015). Developing a resilience indicator for food security monitoring and evaluation: index construction and household classification for six African countries. Agrekon, 53(3), 31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bundervoet, T., Verwimp, P., & Akresh, R. (2009). Health and civil war in rural Burundi. Journal of Human Resources, 44(2), 536–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cameron, A., & Trivedi, P. (2009). Microeconometrics using STATA. Texas: Stata Press.Google Scholar
  23. Carletto, G., Ruel, M., Winters, P., & Zezza, A. (2015). Farm-level pathways to improved nutritional status: introduction to the special issue. The Journal of Development Studies, 51(8), 945–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christiaensen, L., & Alderman, H. (2004). Child malnutrition in Ethiopia: can maternal knowledge augment the role of income? Economic Development and Cultural Change, 52(2), 287–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ciani, F., & Romano, D. (2014) Testing for household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Nicaragua. Congress paper Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics URL http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/182717/2/RomanoTesting_for_household_resilience_to_food_insecurity-380_a.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  26. Cissé, J. D., & Barrett, C. B. (2015) Resilience measurement: a moment-based approach to resilience identification and aggregation. Conference paper Agricultural & Applied Economics Association URL http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaaea15/205621.htm. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  27. Cochrane, S. H., Leslie, J., & O’Hara, D. J. (1982). Parental education and child health: intracountry evidence. Health Policy and Education, 2(3), 213–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Costello, A., & Osborne, J. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9.Google Scholar
  29. Dercon, S. (2002). Income risk, coping strategies, and safety nets. The World Bank Research Observer, 17(2), 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dercon, S., Bold, T., & Calvo, C (2008) Insurance for the Poor? Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Dercon, S., Hoddinott, J., & Tassew, W. (2012). Growth and chronic poverty: evidence from rural communities in Ethiopia. Journal of Development Studies, 48(2), 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DFID (2011). Defining disaster resilience: a dfid approach paper. Resource document Department for International Development URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/186874/defining-disaster-resilience-approach-paper.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  33. Di Tommaso, M. L. (2007). Children capabilities: a structural equation model for India. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 36(3), 436–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dufour, C., Kau_mann, D., & Marsland, N. (2014). Enhancing the links between resilience and nutrition. In S. Fan, R. Pandya-Lorch, & S. Yosef (Eds.), Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security (pp. 107–117).Google Scholar
  35. Ellis, F. (2000). Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford: Oxford university press.Google Scholar
  36. FAO (2012). The state of food insecurity in the world. Resource document Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations URL http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3027e/i3027e.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  37. FAO (2014). Strengthening the links between resilience and nutrition in food and agriculture. Discussion paper Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations URL http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3777e.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  38. Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. FSIN (2014). Resilience. Technical paper Food Security Information Network-Resilience Measurement Technical Working Group URL http://www.fsincop.net/fileadmin/user_upload/fsin/docs/resources/FSIN_29jan_WEB_medium%20res.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  40. Gallopín, G. C. (2006). Linkages between vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 293–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoddinott, J. (2006). Shocks and their consequences across and within households in rural Zimbabwe. The Journal of Development Studies, 42(2), 301–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoddinott, J., Headey, D., & Dereje, M. (2015). Cows, missing milk markets, and nutrition in rural Ethiopia. The Journal of Development Studies, 51(8), 958–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. IFAD (2015). How to do: measuring climate resilience. Resource document International Fund for Agricultural Development URL http://www.ifad.org/knotes/climate/htdn_climate_resilience.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  44. Kanamori, M. J., Carter-Pokras, O. D., Madhavan, S., Lee, S., He, X., & Feldman, R. (2015). Associations between orphan and vulnerable child caregiving, household wealth disparities, and women’s overweight status in three southern African countries participating in demographic health surveys. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(8), 1662–1671.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Khan, F. (2014). Adaptation vs. development: basic services for building resilience. Development in Practice, 24(4), 559–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kimani-Murage, E. W., Holding, P. A., Fotso, J. C., Ezeh, A. C., & Madise, N. J. (2010). Food security and nutritional outcomes among urban poor orphans in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Urban Health., 88(Suppl 2), S283–S298.Google Scholar
  47. Kolenikov, S., & Angeles, G. (2004). The use of discrete data in pca: theory, simulations, and applications to socioeconomic indices. Chapel Hill: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina pp 1–59., URL http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/resources/publications/wp-04-85. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  48. Krishnakumar, J., & Nagar, A. (2008). On exact statistical properties of multidimensional indices based on principal components, factor analysis, mimic and structural equation models. Social Indicators Research, 86(3), 481–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maleta, K., Virtanen, S., Espo, M., Kulmala, T., & Ashorn, P. (2003). Seasonality of growth and the relationship between weight and height gain in children under three years of age in rural Malawi. Acta Paediatrica, 92(4), 491–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maluccio, J. A., Hoddinott, J., Behrman, J. R., Martorell, R., Quisumbing, A. R., & Stein, A. D. (2009). The impact of improving nutrition during early childhood on education among Guatemalan adults. The Economicn Journal, 119(537), 734–763.Google Scholar
  51. Maxwell, D., Vaitla, B., Tesfay, G., & Abadi, N. (2013). Resilience, food security dynamics, and poverty traps in northern Ethiopia: analysis of a biannual panel data set, 2011–2013. Resource document Somerville: Tufts University/Feinstein International Center URL http://technicalconsortium.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Resillience_food-security-dynamics.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.Google Scholar
  52. Moser, C. O. (1998). The asset vulnerability framework: reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies. World Development, 26(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Muthén, B. (1984). A general structural equation model with dichotomous, ordered categorical, and continuous latent variable indicators. Psychometrika, 49(1), 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pingali, P., Alinovi, L., & Sutton, J. (2005). Food security in complex emergencies: enhancing food system resilience. Disasters, 29(s1), S5–S24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Quinn, V. J., Guyon, A. B., Schubert, J. W., Stone-Jiménez, M., Hainsworth, M. D., & Martin, L. H. (2005). Improving breastfeeding practices on a broad scale at the community level: success stories from Africa and Latin America. Journal of Human Lactation, 21(3), 345–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reiersøl, O. (1941). Confluence analysis by means of lag moments and other methods of confluence analysis (pp. 1–24). Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society.Google Scholar
  57. Robeyns, I. (2003). Sen’s capability approach and gender inequality: selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist Economics, 9(2–3), 61–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sahn, D. E. (1994). The contribution of income to improved nutrition in Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of African Economies, 3(1), 29–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Scott, J. T. (1966). Factor analysis and regression. Econometrica, 43(3), 552–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Skrondal, A., & Rabe-Hesketh, S. (2004). Generalized latent variable modeling: multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models. Boca Raton: Crc Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smit, B., & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tefera, N., & Kayitakire, F. (2014). Household resilience for food and nutrition security: Empirical evidence from rural households in Ethiopia. Conference paper Conference: Information For Meeting African’s Transformation And Food Security Goals URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269872488_Household_Resilience_for_Food_and_Nutrition_Security_Empirical_Evidence_from_Rural_Household_in_Ethiopia. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  63. Turner, B. L., Kasperson, R. E., Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Kasperson, J. X., Luers, A., & Martello, M. L. (2003). A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(14), 8074–8079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vincent, K. (2007). Uncertainty in adaptive capacity and the importance of scale. Global Environmental Change, 17(1), 12–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. WHO (2006). Who child growth standards: methods and development. Resource document World Health Organization URL http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report/en/. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  67. WHO (2016). Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: malnutrition. Resource document World Health Organization URL http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/child/malnutrition/en. Accessed 10 Feb 2016.
  68. Wright, P. G. (1928). Tariff on animal and vegetable oils. London: The Macmillan Company.Google Scholar
  69. Zimmerman, F. J., & Carter, M. R. (2003). Asset smoothing, consumption smoothing and the reproduction of inequality under risk and subsistence constraints. Journal of Development Economics, 71(2), 233–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food and Agricultural Organization of the United NationsRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations